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PaulS's picture

GP Climate Change programme

Here is what GP Climate Change WG designed programme might look like (still working on including some of these ideas in revised sectorial GP policies).
This program may perhaps be sufficient for the Uk to become carbon neutral by 2030, which is necessary to keep to no mo0re that 1.5C increase. However, much the same type of radical program would also have to be adopted by ALL countries in the world. Not much sign of that!
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Transport
Ban on the sale of new fossil fuel powered mopeds and motorbikes (below 50cc) within 1 year.
All new motorbikes sold to be battery electric within 2 years.
10% of all new car sales to be battery electric within 1 year.
Phased increase in proportion of battery electric new cars sold, leading to ban on sale of all new fossil fuelled cars within 4 years (small number of exceptions for heavy industrial and military uses).
State subsidies for electric vehicles to be withdrawn (lower levels of car ownership to be encouraged).
All fossil fuelled cars to be converted to battery electric, or other carbon neutral fuel source, or scrapped by 2030.
Ban within 2 years on the sale of new fossil fuelled buses, coaches and other public transport vehicles.
Phased scrappage scheme (publicly funded) to remove all fossil fuelled public transport vehicles by 2030.
Phased ban on cars from town and city centres, increasing the use of walking, cycling & public transport.
Ban on new major road construction schemes with government funding moving to bus and cycle lanes.
HGV fuel cell technology is less advanced, so a longer period may be necessary to convert the fleet to zero emission sources. But a decision will be need rapidly on the extent to which battery electric technology can meet HGV needs and the extent to which hydrogen fuel cell technology will be needed. All new HGVs sold will have to be zero emission within 5 years, with a conversion programme organised for many existing HGVs. The entire HGV fleet will have to be converted to zero emission by 2030.

Aviation
The aviation sector to be reduced in size by requiring that it become 100% carbon neutral by 2025.
Phased increase in air fares to pay for the carbon sequestration of historical aviation emissions (negative emissions). By 2030 flight passengers to pay for double sequestration - for the flight taken plus offsetting of one historical flight.

Cruises & Shipping
Recognising the environmental damage caused by the holiday cruise industry the carbon sequestration regime proposed for aviation should be applied to the cruise industry (carbon neutral by 2025 and double carbon sequestration by 2030). This should reduce the size of the industry.
Non fossil fuelled shipping technologies should be deployed and scaled up rapidly. State and industry funding of R&D into zero carbon fuel sources will be expanded with the aim of making the industry carbon free by 2030. However if the shipping sector cannot be decarbonised by 2030 mandatory carbon offsetting will be required.

Heat/gas.
Three cities will be chosen to run trials of the emerging low carbon technologies. Leeds has already been selected for the H21 hydrogen conversion trial (with CCS). One other city should run a trial conversion of ‘power to gas’ (hydrogen) derived from wind power. A third city should run a trial of the Ecotricity bio-gas anaerobic digestion system (methane derived from waste products).
All three trials should start in 2018 with the lessons learned determining which is cheapest, can be deployed in time to support a nationwide 2025 deadline and has the potential to support other technologies. By 2020 the UK will be rolling out the new gas infrastructure to all UK homes and businesses. It should be completed within 5 years with the proportions perhaps being 30% methane from bio-gas, 30% hydrogen derived from natural gas with CCS and 40% hydrogen derived from the renewables, principally wind power.

This report on the H21 trial provides more information: -
https://www.northerngasnetworks.co.uk/…/H21-Report-Interact…

From 2026 the use of unabated fossil fuel gas will be banned.
The conversion programme will be funded by a public/private/consumer partnership with low income households receiving free conversions.
Solar thermal water heating, geothermal heat, air source heat pumps and ground source heat pumps should all be deployed; with building regulations, stamp duty reform and council tax reform being used to ensure the most efficient methods are deployed in time to meet the 2025 decarbonising target.

Electricity
Trials into the range of renewable technologies should be accelerated but the expectation is that by 2025 the bulk of electricity will come from onshore and offshore wind, solar PV and tidal power.
Immediate plans will be drawn up for the new wind turbine factories and other facilities needed to deploy the equivalent of around 1,000 8MW wind turbines per annum.

By the end of 2025 the UK will meet its entire electricity and hydrogen needs and be a net exporter of surplus electricity to the EU via a network of HVDC cables.

Trials of BECCS technology should begin immediately to determine its potential and scope of application. If successful it will be increasingly deployed after 2030 to begin the task of returning atmospheric CO2 levels to below 350ppm.

Energy Storage
The full range of energy storage systems will be scaled up immediately (hydrogen within the gas grid, pumped hydro from within the UK and from Norway, battery electric, compressed air, etc.). By 2022 the cheapest and most efficient energy storage systems will deployed at scale to provide seasonal energy storage for the whole country.
A range of financial and regulatory levers will be deployed to liberate people from the national grid, making more homes energy self-sufficient with a combination of solar PV and battery storage technologies.
The new infrastructure will be funded by a public/private/consumer partnership with low income households protected from the additional cost.

Housing
Greater use of wood will be used in new construction and renovation to sequester as much carbon as is practical.
2 million homes per annum to be retrofitted with high standards of double glazing and insulation to reduce gas/heating demand by around 50%. The national programme of retrofitting should be completed by 2030.
Industry/military and carbon offsetting
It will be difficult to decarbonise some industrial and military processes and where it is not possible the carbon emitted should be offset by carbon sequestration elsewhere.
The full range of carbon sequestration processes should be deployed with trials informing industry which are the cheapest and most efficient methods. It is expected that there will be a significant role for enhanced weathering and CCS in North Sea deleted oil/gas fields.
A deadline of 2030 will be set for achieving carbon neutrality for a number of activities.

Lifestyle changes
A massive programme of public information at all levels, enlisting the voluntary sector and educational institutions, will be deployed to encourage lifestyle changes encouraging people to become healthier and use less energy, consume less, walk & cycle more, eat less meat, etc.

Rewilding: The 4p1000 initiative
A volunteer army, particularly aimed at the recently retired, will be created to re-wild the countryside and green urban areas. Billions [ max number?] of trees will be planted.
New agricultural practices will be deployed as advocated by the 4p1000 initiative and The Soil Association, drawing millions of tons of CO2 [ max number?] out of the atmosphere.
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