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Draft Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) for A Green Cornwall

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Having signed up to the Covenant of Mayors in September 2011, Cornwall Council is committed to submitting a Council-approved Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP).

This is a draft SEAP prepared for formal consultation. The purpose of this draft report is to seek comments in respect of the targets and vision, and the Council’s current and planned actions.

The SEAP is a living document, and the identification of actions will need to continue between now and 2020 to ensure the Council can help meet the EU targets for reducing energy demand and carbon emissions, and increasing renewable energy generation.

Formal Consultation – 4th February to 10th March

Please send any comments to seap@cornwall.gov.uk or by post to Caroline Carroll, the Planning Delivery Team, Planning and Regeneration, Cornwall Council, Circuit House, St Clement Street, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 1DT, to reach us by Sunday 10th March.

Next Steps

Mid March 2013 – The final draft SEAP will be presented to the Council for final approval.

Mid May 2013 – The final SEAP will be submitted to the Covenant of Mayors.
Executive Summary

Cornwall has an annual energy demand estimated to be in the region of £1.4 billion and rising. This is despite the fact that Cornwall benefits from a range of natural resources which would enable the local production of renewable energy, including the highest levels of solar irradiation in mainland UK, the best geothermal resources in the UK, amongst the best wind resources in Western Europe, and huge potential marine energy resources. Potential renewable electricity resources in Cornwall are estimated to be up to 2,441,000 MWh per year (excluding offshore technologies and geothermal). The total electricity consumption from the SEAP sectors in 2009 was 1,819,525 MWh.

Cornwall Council has the responsibility to lead by example and inspire the businesses and communities in Cornwall to drive down emissions and energy demand. In October 2011, Cornwall Council became a signatory of the Covenant of Mayors, and as such, is required to produce a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP).

Cornwall’s SEAP focuses on actions where the Council has a role to play as a planner, motivator, consumer and producer. Cornwall Council has an overarching programme to coordinate efforts to reduce our carbon emissions and strengthen our wider leadership role within Cornwall. This Green Cornwall Programme aspires to exceed national and European targets, and exceed those set by the Covenant of Mayors. Cornwall’s SEAP sits within this programme, and the actions presented in this document are in line with the Green Cornwall Strategy:

· Green Council – actions to reduce the Councils own emissions;
· Green Economy – actions to reduce emissions from the commercial and services sector;
· Green Communities – actions to reduce emissions from the domestic sector;
· Green Cornwall – strategic cross cutting actions to assist in emission reduction from all the above sectors.

All actions will support and encourage reductions in carbon emissions, and an increased use of sustainable energy and/or a reduction in energy demand, and will be targeted at the key sectors defined by the Covenant of Mayors:

· Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Transport
· Local electricity production
· Local district heating/cooling
· Land use planning
· Public procurement of products and services
· Working with citizens and stakeholders

Cornwall’s SEAP proposes the following targets from a 2009 baseline:
· Cutting the overall green house gas/equivalent carbon (CO2e) emissions from the SEAP sectors by 34% by 2020
· Cutting the green house gas/ equivalent carbon (CO2e) emissions of the Council by 40% by 2020
· Reducing energy demand from the SEAP sectors by 30% by 2020
· 30% of electricity demand to be met from the generation of renewable or low carbon electricity in 2020.

In order to measure the success of the SEAP, a Baseline Emissions Inventory (BEI) has been created based on 2009 emissions, against which progress of activities towards achievement of the SEAP targets will be regularly monitored, and reported back to the Covenant of Mayors. The recommended reference year was 1990, but it is more important to use the most comprehensive and reliable data available, which is why Cornwall Council has chosen to use information from 2009 as the baseline. In real terms, this means Cornwall Council has set very ambitious targets.

The BEI covers the four SEAP sectors that Cornwall Council has an influence over: building and equipment/facilities, transport, waste and water management, and local energy production. The 2009 baseline information for these sectors, and the corresponding target calculations, are summarised in the tables below.

Emissions reduction

Category Baseline (tonnes of CO2e) Target reduction CO2e in 2020 CO2eRequired saving
Council buildings and facilities 42,909 40% 25,745 17,163
Commercial buildings 429,695 34% 283,599 146,096
Residential buildings 1,330,287 34% 877,989 452,297
Street lighting 11,199 40% 6,719 4,479
Municipal fleet 12,002 40% 7,201 4,801
Public transport 67,044 34% 44,249 22,795
Private and commercial 886,622 34% 585,170 301,451
Waste management 294,228 34% 194,190 1,000,038
Water management 45 34% 29 16
Total 3,074,030 2,024,893 1,049,137

Demand reduction / efficiency savings

Category Baseline (MWh) Target reduction MWh in 2020 MWh savings
Council buildings and facilities 122,574 30% 85,802 36,772
Commercial buildings 1,363,415 30% 954,391 409,025
Residential buildings 4,141,793 30% 2,899,255 1,242,583
Street lighting 20,540 30% 14,378 6,162
Municipal fleet 47,991 30% 33,594 14,397
Public transport 264,985 30% 185,489 79,496
Private and commercial 3,580,655 30% 2,506,459 1,074,197
Total 9,541,953 30% 6,679,367 2,862,586

Renewable electricity generation

In 2009, renewable electricity generation equated to 187,199 MWh. The total electricity consumption from the SEAP sectors in 2009 was 1,819,525 MWh. In 2020 demand should have been reduced to 1,273,667 MWh. The target of 30% renewable generation will then equate to 382,100 MWh.

Sustainable Energy Actions

Sections 3, 4, 5 and 6 outline the sustainable energy actions underway since 2009, those planned and the aspirational actions that will directly or indirectly result in reductions in carbon emissions, an increased in the use of sustainable energy and/or a reduction in energy demand. Of the measurable actions, tonnes of equivalent carbon (t/CO2e) emissions, renewable energy generation (MWh) and energy saved (MWh) have been calculated.

Section 3 ‘Green Cornwall’ is concerned with cross cutting strategic actions and projects that will enable all of the SEAP sectors and Cornwall as a whole to make changes. Section 4 ‘Green Council’ is concerned with actions and projects that specifically relate to the Council’s emissions from its estate and assets. Section 5 ‘Green Communities’ is concerned with actions and projects based within Cornwall’s communities and the domestic sector. Section 6 ‘Green Economy’ is concerned with actions and projects in Cornwall’s commercial businesses and organisations.

Current Conclusions
Measuring actions enables progress to be monitored in the different sectors against all of the SEAP targets. The conclusion clearly indicates the need for further actions to be identified and delivered if targets are to be met by 2020. Current actions will reduce emission by approx 16%, reduce energy by approximately 4%, but renewable energy generation (dependant upon demand in 2020) will supply approximately 28-40% of the SEAP sectors electricity demand.

Through stakeholder engagement and communication of the SEAP, it is hoped that further sustainable energy actions can be identified and delivered, leading to a low carbon energy future, an elimination of fuel poverty and a thriving green economy for Cornwall.

Contents
1 Introduction 8
1.1 Setting the Scene 8
1.2 Covenant of Mayors 12
1.3 Future Cornwall 13
1.4 Green Cornwall Programme 13
1.5 Economic Ambition 14
1.6 Economic Growth Strategy for Cornwall & Isles of Scilly 15
2 Sustainable Energy Action Plan 17
2.1 A SEAP for Cornwall 17
2.2 Target Areas 18
2.3 Baseline Information 19
2.4 SEAP Vision and Targets 22
2.5 Measuring Actions 24
2.6 SEAP Development 25
2.7 Monitoring 25
3 Green Cornwall – All SEAP sectors 27
3.1 Overview 27
3.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities 27
3.3 Transport 27
3.4 Local Electricity Production 30
3.5 Land Use Planning 33
3.6 Work with citizens and stakeholders 34
3.7 Direction towards 2020 37
4 Green Council – Local Authority 41
4.1 Overview 41
4.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities 42
4.3 Street Lighting 43
4.4 Transport 44
4.5 Local Electricity Production 45
4.6 Public procurement of products and services 46
4.7 Working with citizens and stakeholders 46
4.8 Direction towards 2020 47
5 Green Communities – Domestic Sector 50
5.1 Overview 50
5.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities 51
5.3 Transport 55
5.4 Local Electricity Production 56
5.5 Land Use Planning 58
5.6 Working with Citizens and Stakeholders 59
5.7 Direction towards 2020 59
6 Green Economy – Commercial and Services Sectors 62
6.1 Overview 62
6.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities 62
6.3 Working with Citizens and Stakeholders 62
6.4 Direction towards 2020 65
7 Conclusion 67

1 Introduction
1.1 Setting the Scene
Cornwall is currently heavily reliant on the importation of fossil fuels to meet much of its energy demands. With an estimated annual energy bill of £1.4 billion, the majority of this money leaves the Cornish economy and energy costs continue to rise.
There are numerous reasons why it is a priority to focus on sustainable energy, these include:
· Socio-economic reasons:
o To become more self sufficient so we have greater control over our own fuel supply
o Finite traditional fossil fuel resources are dwindling, demand is increasing and costs are rising
o To meet the challenges of fuel poverty
o Building a green economy for Cornwall will provide quality employment, education and training opportunities
· Environmental reasons:
o Cleaner energy sources will reduce pollution (e.g. air, water, soils)
o Reducing green house gas emissions and helping to combat the effects of climate change

As the unitary authority for Cornwall, Cornwall Council has a responsibility not only in improving our own performance in carbon reduction and our use of sustainable energy, but we also have as an important leadership role in driving, inspiring and supporting Cornwall to reach its full potential. The Councils Green Cornwall Programme is the mechanisms for delivering these objectives. It is only by working in partnership that we can succeed.
In Cornwall, we are blessed with a range of natural resources: the highest levels of solar irradiation in mainland UK (Figure 1); amongst the best wind resources in Western Europe (Figure 2); the best geothermal resources in the UK (Figure 3) and huge potential marine energy resources (Figure 4).

Figure 1-1: Solar electricity potential

Figure 1- 2 – Map of minimum economic wind speed (5.5m/s at 10m height)

Figure 1-3: Heat flow at the surface

Figure 1-4: Annual mean wave power
A variety of reports have been undertaken to identify the renewable energy resource potential available in Cornwall. An onshore assessment for Cornwall was undertaken in 2011/12 by Cornwall Council. The findings of the assessment are summarised in the consultation document ‘Options and Preferred Options for Energy Minerals and Waste’ (January 2012). This report can be found at www.cornwall.gov.uk/naturalresources
The potential for generating electricity from offshore renewable energy sources, including wave, tidal or wind was not considered in the resource assessment because they are not strictly under the Council’s control, being below the mean low water mark. However, the Offshore Renewables Resource and Development (ORRAD) project looks at the South West of England’s offshore capabilities. This report can be found at http://www.regensw.co.uk/projects/offshore-renewables/offshore-supply-ch...

In May 2012, the Renewable Energy Association released a report which examined the potential for deep geothermal in the UK. This report can be found at http://www.r-e-a.net/news/deep-geothermal-resource-has-potential-to-prod...

1.2 Covenant of Mayors
In October 2011, Cornwall Council became a signatory of the Covenant of Mayors.
‘The Covenant of Mayors is the mainstream European movement involving local and regional authorities, voluntarily committing to increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources on their territories. By their commitment, Covenant signatories aim to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO2 reduction objective by 2020’ .
The Covenant of Mayors specifically requires the Council to submit a Council approved, Cornwall wide Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The SEAP should outline the measures and policies that will be implemented to achieve (as a minimum) the EU targets of:
· Reduce CO2 emissions by at least 20% by 2020
· Reduce energy demand by at least 20% by 2020
· Increasing installed renewable energy by at least 20% by 2020

There were 4,661 signatories across Europe as of 22 January 2013.

1.3 Future Cornwall
‘Future Cornwall’ is the ‘Sustainable Community Strategy’ for Cornwall. It prioritises a set of goals which private, voluntary and community organisations wish to promote and acts as an umbrella for all other strategies devised for Cornwall. The Strategy sets out four long term objectives:
Economy:
· To become a market leader in innovative business and low carbon technologies; increase productivity and raise quality across the economy.
· To enhance and build a robust network of small and medium size businesses to secure Cornwall’s economic stability.

Self sufficient and resilient communities:
· To improve our communities through quality building, using housing development to meet local need and drive the regeneration and sustainability of communities, promoting smaller settlements to be centres of employment and services and set an example in design for sustainable living.
· To promote equality of opportunity and well-being, improve access to quality services, increase participation in influencing local decision making and encouraging individuals to engage in shaping and delivering services in their communities.

Good health and wellbeing for everyone:
· To make it easier for people to lead healthy, active lifestyles and to get involved in their local community.

Environment:
· To make the most of our environment, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and invest in and promote sustainable use of natural resources.

In order to deliver these long term objectives, five priorities have been set for the period 2010 – 2015. These are:

1. Improve resilience and self-sufficiency of communities
2. Improve health and radical redesign of health and social care services
3. Bring Cornwall out of recession focusing on the low carbon economy
4. Minimise waste, increase local generation of sustainable and affordable energy and reduce consumption
5. Achieve a balanced housing market that meets local needs

1.4 Green Cornwall Programme
Cornwall Council’s ‘Green Cornwall’ Programme is one of the mechanisms for delivering the objectives set out in Future Cornwall, specifically concerning: developing a low carbon economy; improving resilience and self-sufficiency of communities; and increasing local generation of sustainable and affordable energy and reducing consumption.

Green Cornwall is Cornwall Council’s overarching programme to coordinate efforts to reduce our carbon emissions and strengthen our wider leadership role within Cornwall. The SEAP sits within the Green Cornwall Programme. The Green Cornwall Programme aspires to exceed national and European targets and to exceed those set by the Covenant of Mayors. The baseline emissions inventory is set from 2009 and the agreed targets as outlined in the Green Cornwall Strategy are:
· Cutting the CO2 emissions of the council by 40% by 2020.
· Contributing towards cutting Cornwall’s green house gas (GHG) emissions above national targets (34%) by 2020.
· Supporting the increase in renewable energy production to meet the national 15% target of non-transport related energy use by 2020.
· Providing leadership to promote non-transport related energy demand reduction of 10% by 2020.
· A measurable transformation towards a low carbon economy.
· Measurable community benefit (fuel poverty levels, renewable heat incentive (RHI) and FITs utilised for local benefit.

The Green Cornwall strategy includes three themes:

· Green Council
· Green Communities
· Green Economy

The SEAP also follows this structure, to tie in with the existing programme. The SEAP is the key mechanism for delivering the Green Cornwall Strategy and targets and for monitoring progress.

1.5 Economic Ambition
In 2010 Cornwall Council produced ‘Economic Ambition – A Cornwall Council White Paper’ for the immediate and medium term future of Cornwall’s economy.

‘In short, within Cornwall we are about to embark on a journey together that will enable us to meet head on the challenges that we face. Cornwall Council will play a lead role in setting regional and local priorities on climate change and the economy. As a council we cannot do everything; our approach to economic change must be focussed on environmental excellence and the long-term transformation of the Cornish economy’.

‘Coupled with the opportunities offered through European Convergence funding, it is envisaged that this document will offer the vision and strategy that will enable us to make the most of Cornwall’s unique assets, people and energy.’

One of the papers strategic issues specifically relates to the objectives of the SEAP: Strategic Issue 5 – Low Carbon

5.1 Targeted support for renewable energy and environmental technologies will be prioritised. In particular, we will build on the Wave Hub and PRIMARE research programme to explore marine renewables and opportunities such as Clay Country eco-town with links to geothermal and sustainable construction technologies.

5.2 As well as promoting the carbon reduction agenda more widely, the Council will ensure that it contributes towards carbon-reduction targets both through its operational and procurement activities.

5.3 The opportunities inherent in pursuing a low carbon economy will be exploited. The Cornwall Development Company will provide support to ensure that the opportunities and benefits to business are maximised.

1.6 Economic Growth Strategy for Cornwall & Isles of Scilly
The Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) have produced ‘An Economic Growth Strategy for Cornwall & Isles of Scilly 2012-202’ . Priority 4 of the strategy is ‘Using the natural environment responsibly as a key economic asset’. Working with partners the LEP will:

• Work to attract investment to grow renewable and marine sectors;

• Support businesses that also contribute towards protecting our environmental assets, for example sustainable construction and the built environment, use of brown-field sites as in the Ecotown, transport and waste management;

• Support the development of high value markets for sustainable local food, farm, fisheries and eco-tourism products and services;

• Ensure all businesses can easily find advice and any incentive support to reduce their impact on the environment;

• Promote Cornwall & Isles of Scilly as a ‘green exemplar’ developing a concept of ‘environmental growth’, using economic prosperity to enhance the environment.

2 Sustainable Energy Action Plan
2.1 A SEAP for Cornwall
The role of the SEAP is to identify how Cornwall will meet its carbon reduction targets by 2020. There are a number of steps in this process:
· Step 1 – Assembly of a ‘Baseline Emissions Inventory’
· Step 2 – Agree measurable actions to achieve targets
· Step 3 – Write SEAP and gain approval from stakeholders (including political approval) we are here
· Step 4 - Submit SEAP to Covenant of Mayors within one year of official adhesion (this has been extended) May 2013
· Step 5 – Ongoing monitoring and reporting every two years after submission.

The SEAP is a ‘living’ document and will be updated and added to as appropriate following submission to Covenant of Mayors.
The SEAP covers sectors that Cornwall Council has influence over, e.g. Council emissions, domestic and commercial buildings and transportation. It also focuses on actions where the Council has a role to play as a planner, motivator, consumer and producer. However, Cornwall Council cannot achieve the targets for Cornwall in isolation and the success of the SEAP is dependent on collaboration. As such, the SEAP for Cornwall is divided into a number of distinct elements:
· Green Cornwall: The cross cutting strategic actions that the Council will take to enable a reduction in emissions, an increase in installed renewable and low carbon energy capacity and a reduction in energy consumption across all of the sectors included in the SEAP.
· Green Council: The actions that the Council will take on its own estate and assets to reduce its emissions, increase its installed renewable and low carbon energy capacity, reduce its energy consumption and setting an example to the rest of Cornwall.
· Green Economy: The actions the Council will take to support and encourage the commercial and services sector in reducing its emissions, increasing its use of sustainable energy and reducing its energy demand.
· Green Communities: The actions the Council will take to support and encourage the communities and the domestic sector in reducing its emissions, increasing its use of sustainable energy and reducing its energy demand.

The actions included in the SEAP range across the sustainable energy hierarchy (Figure 5). The guiding principle of the energy hierarchy is to reduce energy use before meeting the remaining energy demand by the cleanest means possible.

Figure 2- 1: The Sustainable Energy Hierarchy

It is important to reduce our energy demand as much as possible, as this would mean we would not need to generate as much energy to meet our needs, be this from renewable/low carbon sources or other sources such as fossil fuels or nuclear power. Energy reduction and efficiency measures are often ‘quick wins’ and inexpensive to implement, and can improve the health and wellbeing of those in fuel poverty.

2.2 Target Areas
As previously explained, we have divided the SEAP into four main areas: Green Cornwall, Green Council, Green Communities and Green Economy. Within these areas, the key target sectors defined by the Covenant of Mayors are:
· Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Transport
· Local electricity production
· Local district heating/cooling
· Land use planning
· Public procurement of products and services
· Working with citizens and stakeholders

These are the sectors deemed to be where the Council can have a direct influence or an indirect influence as a land use planner, motivator, consumer and producer. Agriculture, industry, aviation and marine transport are not included in the scope of the SEAP. Agriculture can be considered for inclusion in future drafts.

2.3 Baseline Information
In order to measure the success of the SEAP, we need baseline information against which to monitor our progress. The Baseline Emissions Inventory (BEI) is an essential part of the SEAP. It shows where we currently are in terms of green house gas (GHG) emissions / CO2e.
Baseline Emissions Inventory
The recommended reference year to use for the BEI is 1990 because it is this year which is used for international standards (e.g. Kyoto Protocol). However, it is more important to use the most comprehensive and reliable data that we have available. A Greenhouse Gas Inventory for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly was carried out by consultants ‘Camco’ for 2007 and 2008. This ‘covers emissions from premises energy sources, transport, agriculture and waste, it also extends to activity areas such as marine and aviation emissions’ This is the earliest comprehensive, reliable data for the whole of Cornwall that we have.
The Green Cornwall Strategy sets its baseline at 2009. To accord with this a BEI for 2009 has been produced for Cornwall excluding the Isles of Scilly and covering only the SEAP sectors:
a) Buildings and equipment/facilities
b) Transport
c) Waste and water management
d) Local energy production

The BEI quantifies the following emissions that occur due to energy consumption in Cornwall:

1. Direct emissions due to fuel combustion in Cornwall in the buildings, equipment/facilities and transportation sectors.
2. (Indirect) emissions related to production of electricity, heat, or cooling that are consumed in Cornwall.

‘Standard’ emission factors have been used in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) principles, which cover all the emissions that occur due to energy consumption within Cornwall, either directly, due to fuel combustion within the local authority, or indirectly via, fuel combustion associated with electricity. The standard emission factors are based on the carbon equivalent content of each fuel. The emissions from the use of biomass/biofuels, as well as emissions of certified green electricity, are considered to be zero.

Data has been sourced from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), the Business Register and Employment Survey and Cornwall Council’s Property Services. Conversion factors used are from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and have been used to calculate GHG emissions, full details of which can be found in the appendices.
a) Buildings and equipment/facilities
Energy consumption data was sourced from the DECC website and from Property Services at Cornwall Council, full details of which can be found in the appendices.
The DECC data does not separate out consumption the same way as is required by the Covenant of Mayors. However, the DECC data is the most reliable source available, so certain assumptions have been made in the reporting (see appendices for further details).
Industry is optional for inclusion in the SEAP and should be reported separately. We have chosen not to include industry, and employment figures have been used to estimate the split between commercial and industry where it is reported as one figure in certain energy statistics from DECC.
Data from the Business Register and Employment Survey suggests in Cornwall 29,600 were employed in the secondary sector and 161,200 were employed in the tertiary sector in 2009 .
Scaling this down and assuming that the number of employees relate to energy consumption, the DECC commercial (tertiary) and industry data has been split 84% and 16% respectively.

Table 2-1: Total energy consumption from buildings and equipment/ facilities:
Municipal (Council) 122,574 MWh
Street lighting 20,540 MWh
Residential 4,141,793 MWh
Tertiary (Commercial) 1,363,415 MWh

Table 2-2: Total CO2e emissions (scope 2 and 3 electricity and scope 1 other fuels) from buildings and equipment/facilities:
Municipal (Council) 42,909 t/CO2e
Street lighting 11,199 t/CO2e
Residential 1,330,287 t/CO2e
Tertiary (Commercial) 429,695 t/CO2e

b) Transport

Road transport data was sourced from DECC and from Property Services at Cornwall Council, full details of which can be found in the appendices.
Table 2-3: Total energy consumption from road transport:

Council fleet 47,991 MWh
Public transport 264,985 MWh
Private and commercial 3,580,655 MWh

Table 2-4: Total CO2e emissions (scope 1) from road transport:

Council fleet 12,002 t/CO2e
Public transport 67,044 t/CO2e
Private and commercial 886,622 t/CO2e

c) Waste and water management

Waste data was sourced direct from the Council. Full details of the calculations used to convert to methane, then to CO2e can be found in the appendices.

Table 2-5: Total CO2e emissions from waste and water:

Local Authority collected waste to landfill 191,761 tonnes 223,255 t/CO2e
Commercial and industrial to landfill 112,500 tonnes 110,020 t/CO2e
Commercial and industrial incineration 22,000 tonnes 4,176 t/CO2e
Waste water discharge 64,988,007 litres 45 t/CO2e

d) Local electricity production

Every year the company Regen SW produce a ‘Renewable Energy Progress Report – South West Annual Review’. In the 2009 annual review they reported on installed capacity for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (for this purpose and knowledge of the background information it is assumed that the Isles of Scilly’s contribution is zero or negligible). Using load factors from both Cornwall Council’s emerging Local Plan and DUKES 2010 the MWh/a generation has been calculated as follows:

Table 2-6: Installed and generated renewable energy:
Technology Installed capacity MW Load factor % Generated MWh/a
Onshore wind 43.6 30 114,581
Small hydro 1.59 60 8,357
Landfill gas 11.94 59.7 62,443
Sewage gas 0.4 44.9 1,573
Solar PV 0.28 10 245

2.4 SEAP Vision and Targets
The SEAP shares Cornwall Council’s Green Cornwall Vision:

‘Cornwall will take advantage of its unique geography and climate, utilising these natural resources for sustainable community and economic gain. It will become an industry leader in environmental technologies, internationally renowned for its world class research and resilient to rising energy costs. It will be a place that will encourage sustainable economic growth that benefits all, producing the majority of its energy needs from renewable sources while reducing waste and demand through the collective efforts of our communities. Cornwall will provide a quality of life that is as good as anywhere in the UK.’
The SEAP incorporates the Green Cornwall targets as outlined in section 1.4, however to comply with the Covenant of Mayors targets by sector, the SEAP proposed targets are (from 2009 baseline):
· Cutting the overall green house gas emissions from the sectors included in the SEAP by 34% by 2020
· Cutting the emissions of the Council by 40% by 2020
· Reducing energy demand from the sectors included in the SEAP by 30% by 2020.
· 30% of electricity demand to be met from the generation of renewable or low carbon electricity.

Emissions Reduction
Table 2-7: Target CO2e savings:

Category Baseline (tonnes of CO2e) Target reduction CO2e in 2020 CO2eRequired saving
Council buildings and facilities 42,909 40% 25,745 17,163
Commercial buildings 429,695 34% 283,599 146,096
Residential buildings 1,330,287 34% 877,989 452,297
Street lighting 11,199 40% 6,719 4,479
Municipal fleet 12,002 40% 7,201 4,801
Public transport 67,044 34% 44,249 22,795
Private and commercial 886,622 34% 585,170 301,451
Waste management 294,228 34% 194,190 1,000,038
Water management 45 34% 29 16
Total 3.074,030 2,024,893 1,049,137
In order for emission reduction targets of 34% and 40% to be met, CO2e emissions in 2020 will need to total 2,024,893 tonnes. This equates to a saving of 1,049,137 tonnes.

Emission reduction will need to be achieved through reducing demand and increasing use of sustainable energy.

Demand Reduction / efficiency saving

Demand reduction is achieved through reducing waste and using energy more efficiently.

Table 2-8: Target energy reduction savings:

Category Baseline (MWh) Target demand reduction MWh in 2020 MWh savings
Council buildings and facilities 122,574 30% 85,802 36,772
Commercial buildings 1,363,415 30% 954,391 409,025
Residential buildings 4,141,793 30% 2,899,255 1,242,583
Street light 20,540 30% 14,378 6,162
Municipal fleet 47,991 30% 33,594 14,397
Public transport 264,985 30% 185,489 79,496
Private and commercial transport 3,580,655 30% 2,506,459 1,074,197
Total 9,541,953 30% 6,679,367 2,862,586
The breakdown per fuel type can be found in the appendices. Demand reduction actions need to result in reducing demand by 2,862,586 MWh’s per year by 2020.

Renewable Electricity Generation

In 2009, renewable electricity generation equated to 187,199 MWh. The total electricity consumption from the SEAP sectors in 2009 was 1,819,525 MWh. In 2020 demand should have been reduced to 1,273,667 MWh. The target of 30% renewable generation will then equate to 382,100 MWh.

NB. In the RegenSW 2012 review, the amount of energy capacity in Cornwall equated to 290,702 MWh/year generated.

2.5 Measuring Actions
To understand the impacts actions will have on reducing the baseline carbon emissions, it is important that they are measured consistently.
Project leads have provided estimates for the energy savings and the amount of installed renewable energy generation capacity. Where estimates were unavailable, estimates from similar pilot projects have been assumed. Not all actions are easily measured, but attempts have been made where possible. Assumptions and details on the calculations can be found in the appendices. In future it is hoped greater emphasis will be put on carbon saving estimates at an early stage of a project proposal.
The same conversion factors have been used throughout as per the Baseline Emission Inventory, using a manual calculation. However, in order to assess the potential carbon impacts from transportation schemes, assessments have been undertaken using the Department for Transport (DfT) developed ‘Local authority basic carbon tool’. This allows local authorities to assess the potential impacts of transport interventions on carbon emissions in their area, and sets out a common approach to assessing transportation schemes. The tool uses a number of data sources including DEFRA conversion factors and datasets with regard to average vehicle emissions and various DfT travel datasets.
2.6 SEAP Development
The existing SEAP actions that the Council is already committed to implementing are set out in the subsequent chapters of this draft report alongside suggested future actions and the direction it hopes to take toward achieving the 2020 goals. The SEAP is a living and evolving document that will evolve as more carbon saving measures are put in place.
We will continue to engage with stakeholders to seek views on what further actions should be considered to enable the CO2 reduction target to be met.
The future actions that are suggested in this report were developed through workshops with internal colleagues, representatives from across the business sector in Cornwall and community groups. An informal consultation sought comments and further suggestions. Through a process of seeking further information on the suggestion some of those ideas form part of the direction to 2020 sections. The actions will be subject to ongoing monitoring and review and the SEAP will be revised and added to as part of an ongoing process after its submission to the Covenant of Mayors.

2.7 Monitoring
Monitoring is a very important part of the SEAP process. Regular monitoring, followed by adequate adaptations of the plan, allows the SEAP to be continuously improved and updated. Covenant of Mayors signatories are committed to submit regular reports following the submission of the SEAP ‘for evaluation, monitoring and verification purposes’. Some indicators are also needed in order to assess the progress and performance of the SEAP.

Covenant of Mayors Requirements

The Covenant of Mayors requires submission of a Monitoring Emissions Inventory (MEI), an Implementation Report and an Action Report, providing information as set out below.
Table 2-9: The Covenant of Mayors submission requirements:

Monitoring Emissions Inventory · CO2 emissions reporting, on similar lines to the original baseline submission.· Due at least four years from the submission of the SEAP
Implementation Report · Quantitative information on measures implemented, their impacts on energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and an analysis of the SEAP implementation process, including corrective and preventive measures when this is required.· Includes submission of the MEI.· Due every two years from the submission of the SEAP.
Action Report · Qualitative information about the implementation of the SEAP. It includes an analysis of the situation and qualitative, corrective and preventive measures.· Does not need to include the MEI.

Monitoring activity

Achievement towards SEAP targets will be monitored on an annual basis. All identified, measurable activities will be required to report progress towards individual targets on a frequency appropriate to the activity. This will enable appropriate action to be identified and implemented where projects are falling short of expected outcomes.

For activities which have more qualitative outcomes, local and national data will be collected and analysed to determine potential changes, where these could be justified as being attributable, in some part, to the activity.

Table 2-10: Timetable for review of the SEAP:

Submission of SEAP May 2013
Implementation and Action Report due 30 May 2015
Monitoring Emissions Inventory, Implementation and Action Reports due 30 May 2017
Implementation and Action Report due 30 May 2019
Monitoring Emissions Inventory, Implementation and Action Reports due 30 May 2021
Monitoring Emissions Inventory, Implementation and Action Reports Final report to Covenant of Mayors due 30 May 2023

Contextual changes

Development and progress of identified projects and future aspirational activities will, in part, be dependant on continuing strategic and policy support. This will also influence opportunities coming forward. Where a significant change in support occurs, this will be reported as part of the monitoring process, along with the anticipated impact on target achievement and identified future activities.

3 Green Cornwall – All SEAP sectors
3.1 Overview
The Green Cornwall section is concerned with cross cutting strategic actions and projects that will enable all of the SEAP sectors and Cornwall as a whole to make changes.
As outlined in section 1.4 above, the Green Cornwall Programme coordinates efforts to reduce the Councils carbon emissions and strengthen our wider leadership role within Cornwall. Two of the strategic themes which relate specifically to the SEAP’s Green Cornwall sections are:
· Leadership: the Council leading by example, providing leadership in reaching Cornwall wide targets and the transformation to a low carbon economy.
· Renewable energy: through Council, other public sector, private sector and community organisations activity, promote the use of renewable energy.
The priorities set out in the SEAP ‘Green Cornwall’ section are all in line with the Councils documents listed in section one. The following sub-sections provide details of the cross cutting strategic activity which will help achieve targets within each SEAP sector.
3.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Building Standards

Cornwall Council is in the process of developing a planning strategy (the Local Plan; formerly the Core Strategy) to guide development over the next 20 years.
As part of the plan, Policy 13 – Development Standards includes:
‘5. Take advantage of any opportunities to minimise energy consumption, with an emphasis on building fabric, for example achieving high levels of insulation, use of natural lighting, ventilation, heating and orientation. This should achieve at least Zero Carbon new builds from 2016 for domestic buildings and from 2019 for non-domestic buildings. Additionally, the development of decentralised low carbon heat networks is particularly encouraged to connect or be designed to facilitate future connection to an existing or planned heat network.’
3.3 Transport
· Superfast Broadband – not measurable in terms of carbon savings

In partnership with British Telecom (BT) Cornwall Council is delivering this project to install superfast fibre optic broadband throughout Cornwall, with significant investment from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) Convergence Programme and BT. The project will see a range of different broadband technologies deployed. Fibre broadband will be the most prevalent and will give between 80 and 90 per cent of local businesses and homes access to super-fast speeds. The expectation is that approximately half of local businesses and homes will also be able to enjoy fibre broadband making Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly one of the best connected areas in the world.

· Local Transport Plan – 2,200 t/CO2e estimated current savings per year- 8,933 MWh saved

‘Connecting Cornwall: 2030’ is the third Local Transport Plan for Cornwall. The strategy covers the period up to 2030 and will be supported by a series of Implementation Plans. The publication of this third Local Transport Plan is a statutory duty for local transport authorities under the Local Transport Act 2008. Connecting Cornwall is the key strategic policy tool through which the Council exercises its responsibilities for planning, management and development of transport in Cornwall, for the movement of both people and goods. The estimated savings are derived from park and ride schemes, bus corridor and rail link improvements, cycle links and school travel plans.

What is Connecting Cornwall Proposing?

o Prioritise investment into walking and cycling routes, together with better promotion and information so that travel by low carbon modes becomes a more attractive and healthy option.

o Reduce road building. Roads will only be built where it can be demonstrated there is a strategic need that meets the priorities for Cornwall. This will reduce the growth in traffic and help to protect the natural environment of Cornwall.

o Support the delivery of electric vehicle infrastructure in Cornwall and the investigation into fuels of the future with partner organisations in order to reduce our reliance on oil.

o Encourage responsible use of our cars through effective travel planning, driver training in more fuel efficient driving techniques, promotion of car clubs and car sharing.

o Work with our partners in health, education and the private sector to plan and provide services close to where people live, so that they can access them by train, bus or cycling without the need to travel by car.

o Work with bus operators to achieve a high quality bus service which includes the provision of new, low emission passenger vehicles.

o Ensure that our transport system is built to last and can withstand the impacts of extreme weather events and rising energy prices, through effective design, construction and maintenance.

o Increase investment in drainage solutions to mitigate the impacts of extreme weather.

o Introduce variable street lighting that allows the level of lighting to be adjusted or turned off to suit the needs of the community, thereby reducing power consumption and carbon emissions.

o Encourage greater use of water and rail based-transport for the movement of freight to maximize the use of the excellent maritime and rail infrastructure that Cornwall possesses.

o Consideration will be given to the introduction of area wide 20mph limits where the benefits of reducing speed can be demonstrated.

· Electric Vehicle Infrastructure

In 2011 Cornwall Council purchased six Nissan Leaf’s for use as pool cars. It also installed fifteen electric vehicle charging points at its nine main office bases for use by the pool cars and visitors to the offices.

3.4 Local Electricity Production
· Geothermal at United Downs and Eden Project –114,318 MWh per year generated - 62,328 t/CO2e/yr saved

In collaboration with the Eden Project, EGS Energy proposes to build the UK's first geothermal power plant generating both heat and electricity. A potentially suitable site has been identified at the Eden Project. With a capacity of 4.5 MWe, it should produce enough electricity to supply Eden and around five thousand households, as well as heating for the biomes and potentially some district heating. Planning consent has been granted and it is hoped that power will be delivered from mid 2014.

The other large-scale deep geothermal energy plant with planning consent in Cornwall is located at United Downs and has the potential to generate 55MWth and 10MWe (enough to power 20,000 homes). This is Geothermal Engineering’s flagship UK project and they intend to develop a geothermal Centre of Excellence in conjunction with Exeter University

· Anaerobic Digestion – Looe Heat and Power – unable to measure currently

The Looe Development Trust has conducted preliminary scoping activities and community engagement, focused on the potential of developing a community-led renewable energy project in Looe. Due to the lack of in-house capacity to develop this initiative further, they have engaged Cornwall Council, the Cornwall Development Company, and the emerging Community Energy Plus-led ‘SECURE’ project, in order to seek assistance in developing an AD plant in the Looe area. A pre-feasibility paper and an ‘Issues and Options’ paper have been prepared for Looe Development Trust by the Cornwall Development Company. Should the Trust decide to progress a project further, the Green Cornwall Programme would be keen to support the initiative.

· Pool Energy Centre / ESCo – 17,082 MWh per year generated - 9,313 t/CO2e/yr saved

This project seeks to deliver an energy centre in Pool, West Cornwall that will produce both low carbon heat and electricity. Through active engagement with the private sector there is proven interest in developing an energy centre. By implementing the proposals, the Council will contribute towards a wide range of its priorities and make an important step in delivering one of them - helping to improve fuel security and reduce Cornwall’s carbon footprint.

· Marine Renewable Energy development – 43, 800 MWh per year generated – 23,880 t/CO2e/yr saved

The launch of the UK’s first Marine Energy Park based in the South West offers an exciting business opportunity for Cornwall. The South West Marine Energy Park will incorporate business resource and physical infrastructure and will be a partnership of local/private sector interests supported by central government. It will bring together physical and commercial assets and resources, to create a positive business environment in order to attract investment and accelerate the commercialisation of marine energy and create a global industry.

PRIMaRE, Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy is an R&D project involving the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter. Alongside industry, international researchers and world class facilities PRIMaRE looks at the marine energy resources characteristics and capabilities, marine energy systems design, grid connections and the impacts and risks.

The Coastal Ocean and Sediment Transport (COAST) laboratory at the Plymouth Marine Building combines wave, current and wind power to create a dynamic ‘theatre’ appropriate for device and array testing, environmental modeling and coastal engineering.

FaB Test is an area within Falmouth Harbour for wave energy device developers to test components, concepts or full scale devices in a moderate wave climate with excellent access to nearby port infrastructure. FaB Test is not grid connected.

Wave Hub offers a grid-connected and consented offshore facility in Hayle with an excellent wave climate for the large scale testing of technologies. Developers will be able to assess how well their devices work and how much power they generate before being commercially produced and deployed. Wave Hub has the necessary consents and permits for up to 20MW (4 x 5MW) of wave energy generation but has been designed with the potential to scale up to 50MW in the future. In October 2012 the first marine license application was submitted to deploy the first device at Wave Hub.

The Hayle Harbour Primary Infrastructure Project is funded by the UK Government (£4.25 million), the ERDF Convergence Programme (£5 million) and Cornwall Council (£5 million). It will deliver infrastructure, including a new bridge, the repair of harbour walls, the creation of a promenade and flood protection works, all required for the Marine Renewables Business Park.

Hayle Marine Renewables Business Park is a £5.7m workspace development located on the North Quay at Hayle. The development will offer 2,591 sq m of space, suitable for bespoke business space/workshops plus hard standing on a 1 hectare site. Pontoon, cranage and slipway access will be available. The units will support businesses developing, deploying and maintaining wave power devices alongside supply chain companies within the sector.

· Hydro - no identified savings currently

As part of some community engagement work, the Council Planning Service assisted both Watergate Bay Hotel and Polperro United Renewable Energy (PURE) group with their interests in possible mini-hydro schemes. Watergate Bay Hotel had previously had a resource assessment carried out and it suggested a potential hydro source. Following a successful and informative meeting with the Environment Agency, the Council was able to arrange for the MEng Renewable Energy students at Exeter University to produce a design scheme. Unfortunately, the report concluded the proposal was not financially viable, however the hotel were very pleased with their high quality of work. The PURE group were hoping to make good use of their potential hydro power given the history of its use in the village. However, an arranged meeting with the Environment Agency provided information leading to a decision it would probably not be viable. This decision ensured the group did not go ahead with expensive consultancy work.

As explained in section 3.5, planning guidance for hydro-generation has been developed and hydro training is being developed, to be delivered at a National Trust owned micro hydro scheme at Cotehele in 2013 (see section 3.6).

· SMART Cornwall.

Advances in renewable technologies, improvements in the way electricity can be stored and an increased demand for consumers to take control of their own household energy, has paved the way for a fundamental shift in the way we all consume energy. However, managing these changes will present significant challenges for the national grid.

Smart grids provide a new type of electricity network which can respond to peaks and troughs in energy generation and demand. Currently, energy flows from suppliers to consumers. A smart grid network will enable a two-way flow of energy and information. This will expose and eliminate waste and inefficiency from the system, empower consumers to interact directly with the grid and increase capacity through more efficient power production and delivery. Smart grids will therefore play an integral role in supporting the move towards a more sustainable and resource efficient economy.

In Cornwall we believe that our unique natural resources, strong history of partnership working and shared ambition to become the leading centre for low carbon and renewable technologies makes us the right place to pioneer a large scale smart grid programme. This is an opportunity to bring about lasting change and could provide a blueprint to be replicated elsewhere in the UK and beyond. A Panel of senior local authority representatives, industry experts and associated stakeholders has been set up to lead the design and delivery of the Smart Cornwall Programme.

3.5 Land Use Planning
· Cornwall Local Plan (formerly the Core Strategy) – not measurable

Cornwall Council is in the process of developing a planning strategy (the Local Plan formerly the Core Strategy) to guide development over the next twenty years. As part of that process the Council is required to consider how to plan for renewable energy development over the next twenty years. Policy options for energy were published for consultation early in 2012 and it is anticipated that draft policy will be published for consultation early this year (when the local plan is formerly submitted to the Secretary of State). The policies contained in this document and associated planning guidance will encourage sustainable development and renewable energy production in Cornwall.

· Resource assessment – not measurable

As participants in an ‘Intelligent Energy Europe’ funded project: ‘Leadership for Energy Action and Planning’ (LEAP), funding has enabled the Council to undertake a detailed resource assessment. The assessment is of the potential resource availability for the generation of electricity and/or heat from renewable/low carbon energy sources within Cornwall. This includes a review of any currently available studies and a review of any similar studies undertaken elsewhere in the UK. The infrastructure requirements (e.g. electricity grid) and constraints (e.g. landscape designations) for low carbon / renewable energy supply have also been explored. The timely assessment informs the development of the Cornwall Local Plan (development plan) and renewable energy potential.

· Heat mapping – not measurable

As participants in an ‘Intelligent Energy Europe’ funded project LEAP, funding will enable the Council to undertake a detailed assessment of the current heat consumption within Cornwall, evaluating the location, season and type of heat consumption. This information will be used to support the development of CHP projects. It is thought that the geothermal energy resources in Cornwall are amongst the best in the UK and this heat assessment will facilitate and support the use of low grade heat from possible future deep enhanced geothermal energy systems. The map will be used to inform Cornwall’s Local Plan and to instigate heat network projects.

· Renewable energy planning guidance – not measurable

As participants in an ‘Intelligent Energy Europe’ funded project LEAP funding has enabled the Council to prepare a series of renewable energy planning guidance notes to assist householders, communities and developers in bringing forward their development ambitions. These guidance notes will include: Solar Photovoltaic, Solar Thermal, Onshore Wind, Anaerobic Digestion Hydropower, Biomass, Heat Pumps, Deep Geothermal and Waste. It is intended that the guidance documents will be adopted by the Council as a "Supplementary Planning Document" following consultation and adoption of the Council's Local Plan proposed after 2013.

· Green Infrastructure Strategy – not measurable

Essentially Cornwall’s green infrastructure is its physical natural environment including its formal parks, gardens, woodlands, green corridors, waterways, street trees and open countryside. For many people green infrastructure is the very reason for living, working, investing and visiting Cornwall. It underlies our identity and provides numerous benefits. Therefore good quality well planned and appropriately located green infrastructure is critical to Cornwall’s future. It will help us to become more sustainable and resilient and address the challenges of climate change. This document will contain policies that will ensure Cornwall’s green infrastructure is enhanced and protected for future generations. The strategy will look at resilience, food and fuel, sustainable movement and sustainable development.

3.6 Work with citizens and stakeholders
· Renewable Energy Training - not measurable

The Council runs a programme of training for local communities (Town and Parish Councils). This programme includes approximately four training sessions on planning for renewable energy each year. The aim is to keep local councils up to date with the latest information to help them to make informed decisions at the local level. The events are also used to inform Councils of the opportunities that are available to communities willing to invest in their own renewable energy generation and to direct them towards specialist support.

Cornwall Council recognises that there is considerable interest amongst all sectors of the community, including householders, landowners, businesses and communities, about renewable energy. It is also apparent that many of these parties are keen to increase their knowledge and understanding of renewable energy and would welcome the opportunity to visit an operational facility and speak to technical parties and regulators. Cornwall Council is therefore seeking to organise a series of training and awareness raising events for a range of renewable energy technologies, including wind, solar PV and hydro.

It is hoped that the hydro training event would take place at Cotehele, Cornwall. This is a National Trust property and benefits from an operational micro-hydro facility. It is hoped that the National Trust, Environment Agency, Cornwall Council and hydro developers could facilitate this training which would be aimed at prospective developers and landowners from within Cornwall and throughout south-west England. Similar training events would also be arranged for solar PV, onshore wind and other technologies in response to interest and demand with a view to establishing a programme of renewable energy training events in Cornwall in order to raise awareness and increase the installed capacity of a range of technologies.

· Cornwall Renewable Energy Show – not measurable

LEAP funding enabled the Council to host a large scale renewable energy show in 2011. The show case energy conference and exhibition was aimed at local developers, electricity/heat consumers, landowners, community groups and householders. Due to its success it was being repeated on a larger scale in 2012 and plans are underway for the 2013 Green Cornwall Show.

The shows aim is to increase awareness and education and to promote and stimulate the development of renewable/low carbon energy in Cornwall. This year’s event will feature a full range of renewable energy technologies including wind, solar, hydro and geothermal with over a hundred indoor and outdoor exhibition spaces. A range of electric cars will be displayed and free tours of the adjacent wind farm will be available. The events will take place at the former Gaia Centre, Delabole directly adjacent to the UK’s first commercial wind farm, in a large purpose built renewable energy interpretation and visitor centre with excellent refreshment, access and parking facilities.

· Eco Communities : Employment and skills projects - not measurable

Several projects are underway to develop skills and create employment opportunities in sustainable construction and renewable energy. Collectively, these are known as the Environmental Centre of Excellence (ECoE). They are grouped around the proposed new Technology Park at Carluddon on the eastern edge of St Austell, mid-Cornwall.

The Technology Park will provide industrial space for environmental technology manufacturing and aims to create jobs by making the area a hub for the growing solar and wind energy industries in Cornwall.

The Employment Space for Advanced Manufacturing (ESAM) is led by Cornwall Council and located at the Technology Park; ESAM will provide high quality workspaces for advanced manufacturing of components for the low carbon sector. It is intended to promote the growth of existing micro businesses, and support the creation of new enterprises and collaborative ventures within this sector.

The National Solar Centre is led by Building Research Establishment which is the national adviser on building technology and is to be located at the Technology Park, the aim is to establish an independent national centre to ensure quality and standards in the fast growing solar industry. Bringing this national initiative to St Austell will secure Cornwall’s central role in the solar industry and really put the area on the map as a place to do business for the renewable energy sector. BRE, supported by Cornwall Council, have submitted an application for ERDF Convergence funding to start up the National Solar Centre. More information on the National Solar Centre can be found on the BRE website.

How2, led by the Eden Project working with Cornwall College, this project is not funded by the Eco-Communities but is linked through being part of the ECoE. How2 aims to create a training and education centre for sustainable technologies and construction methods that will have strong links to the National Solar Centre. The delivery of vocational and technical training will help ensure local people and employers have the skills needed by the low-carbon sector, enabling them to benefit from the opportunities provided by the emerging sustainable technologies.

Employment and skills are central to the Eco-communities programme. It is vitally important that as many construction jobs as possible go to local people and businesses by ensuring they have the skills to take on contracts to build new housing for the Eco-communities and take part in the retrofit opportunities being offered through Green Deal. Cornwall Council commissioned BRE to research how demand for skills and supply chains in the low carbon construction sector are likely to develop in Cornwall. This research will help to ensure that Cornwall’s workforce, manufacturers and training providers are as well prepared as possible to respond quickly and comprehensively to the likely growth in this sector. Support is also being provided to ensure that European funding, currently targeting the Eco-communities area, is maximised through encouraging local advice, guidance and training organisations to work together and share expertise.

3.7 Direction towards 2020
Current, ongoing and planned actions are set out above. In order to meet our targets, further actions will be necessary. Some suggestions for future actions were made during workshops with stakeholders, and these were put out for informal consultation. Responses, along with Council comments, can be found in the appendices.

Many project ideas are already under way, for example, many comments focused on travel all of which already form part of the Council Local Transport Plan ‘Connecting Cornwall’.
Of the suggested actions at this stage the Council aspires to focus on the following.
· Hydro – no current measurables identified

The Green Cornwall team will initially produce a brief strategy and action plan for hydro, clarifying our role – leadership; direct delivery; facilitation.
The Council aspires to:

1. Develop communication systems to improve sharing of resources and information.

2. Further investigation of feasibility of hydro-generation at historical sites, tidal mills and of pump storage systems.

3. Investigate possible funding streams for community based hydro-generation.

4. Instigate potential partnership with Exeter University to support community proposals

5. Bring forward Cornwall Council sites for hydro generation.

6. Work with Regen SW and other to investigate how other Local Authorities/ areas are taking forward hydro.

7. Work with EA to simplify planning / approval process.

8. Investigate value of hydro in energy storage.

· Developing the SMART Cornwall delivering a world class energy ecosystem project
.
“We are committed to ensuring our future energy security and creating new high value jobs for future generations. We see the SMART Cornwall programme as a key driver for this: putting Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly in charge of its own energy future.

We are aware that the SMART Cornwall programme is ambitious and to deliver our vision we have set up a steering group of local and national partners. Working with industry experts the SMART Cornwall steering group will consolidate our priorities, design and deliver a targeted programme of work.

The SMART Cornwall programme represents a long term commitment from partners. We hope this will give local businesses and communities the confidence to invest their time and energy into this. We also hope that innovative national and international partners and businesses will recognise this commitment and see that the SMART Cornwall ecosystem represents a unique opportunity to collaborate, innovate and grow.

We of course don’t yet know where this journey will take us but I sincerely hope you will join us on it”

Cllr Chris Ridgers
Cornwall Council cabinet member for economy and regeneration & Chair of the SMART Cornwall steering group

· Developing EV Infrastructure

The Council aspires to:-
1. Develop a clear strategy for the development of electric vehicles in Cornwall and identify what the Council’s role will be.

2. Find and secure funding for electric vehicle infrastructure in Cornwall.

3. Install infrastructure for electric vehicle charging across the county.

4. Facilitate the uptake of EV’s for both business and domestic users.

5. Encourage accommodation providers to provide chargers for visitors.

6. Look at the visitor experience with the option for hiring electric cars and bicycles.

7. Install infrastructure for electric bicycles providing security and charging points in and about ‘Area’s of Outstanding Natural Beauty’ for example. Also look at providing details of routes and infrastructure via a GPS app.

· Marine Energy – 131,400 MWh generated per year – 71,642 t/CO2e/yr saved

The Environment, Planning and Economy Directorate Plan 2012/13 includes in its ‘Priorities and Outcomes’: Improvement in the marine and maritime infrastructure, services and sector development.

With partners the Council is currently exploring:

1. The potential extension to Wave Hub providing capacity for a further 30-40MW grid connection (Crown estate/investment dependent)

2. Opportunities for near shore deployment wave/tidal, up to four sites of circa 5MW each (20MW total).

3. The grid infrastructure assessment considering upgrade and distribution – Primary and Sub Station upgrade along with network capacity and switching improvements to enable use of renewable energy.

4. Smart Grid pilot locations to be explored.

5. Isles of Scilly – potential for a pilot tidal/wave deployment of up to 5MW and Smart Grid distribution/capacity management.

· Geothermal

Cornwall offers a promising potential deep geothermal resource due to the particular geology underlying the region. The resource is already partially proven with the Rosemanowes ‘hot dry rocks’ project in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the deep geothermal resource is not ‘conventional’ - there are no hot fluids circulating in a geothermal reservoir. Instead, the heat resource is contained within granite rocks and the reservoirs must therefore be ‘engineered’ by fracturing the rock and circulating water in the reservoir.

Cornwall Council is keen to better understand the potential of this resource and if appropriate to support the development of this sector in line with the renewable ‘green’ energy generation aspirations of the County. Consultants Arup has been appointed by Cornwall Council to undertake an options study to investigate the development of the deep geothermal energy sector in Cornwall.

Discussions are now underway with the Local Enterprise Partnership and a number of other stakeholders to establish an approach to taking this work forward.

The Council is committed to support development of a delivery partnership to capitalise on any opportunities identified.

· Anaerobic Digestion

The Council aspires to:

1. Promote and enable strategic and small scale AD deployment

2. Investigate the potential use of micro anaerobic digesters and the option to progress a pilot project.

· Develop a Heat Opportunities Plan

The Council aspires to:

1. Identify those areas in Cornwall that have the best potential to support community heat networks, focussing primarily on areas where heat networks can supply low carbon or waste heat to new and existing development.

2. For the areas with best potential, create a plan that demonstrates a clear basis for the development of a heat network. In particular, the plan should show how the key heat loads, the infrastructure layout, the development and energy contract timeframes; and any other relevant factors demonstrate the potential for the development of a heat network.

4 Green Council – Local Authority
4.1 Overview
The ‘Green Council’ section is concerned with actions and projects that specifically relate to the Council’s emissions from its estate and assets.
One of the Green Cornwall Programmes strategic themes, relate specifically to the Council’s emissions:
· Green Council: reducing the Council’s carbon emissions to both meet and exceed its carbon reduction commitment
The work associated with achieving this will be carried out within services such as the Property, Planning and Regeneration, Corporate Procurement and Information Services.
Diagram showing the percentage emissions by Council Service for financial year 2009/2010

The Council has set the target of reducing its CO2 emissions by 40% by 2020 from 2009 baseline. The key projects that will contribute to this target are described below.

4.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Carbon Management Plan – 3,433 MWh per year saved, 1,458 t/CO2e current estimated annual savings

In May 2010, under the Carbon Trusts Local Authority Carbon Management Programme Cornwall Council was selected to develop a Carbon Management Plan in partnership with the Carbon Trust. This plan was approved by the Council’s Cabinet in March 2011. By energy reduction measures and renewable energy production, the Council seeks to reduce its carbon emissions by 30% from the 2009/10 baseline by March 2016 and become carbon neutral by 2025. Tranche one of the plan is underway and consists of voltage optimisation, building management systems, replacement lamps and lighting controls and energy saving initiatives. It also includes the installation of two biomass boilers at two main office buildings replacing old inefficient gas boilers. Tranche one will result in a saving of approximately 1,300 tonnes of CO2e. Further savings are being planned.

· Replacement PCs and Power down project – 861 MWh saved per year - 464 t/CO2e estimated annual savings

As machines need replacing they are being replaced with more energy efficient machines. Replacing approximately 8,678 machines will save approximately 728 MWh/a equating to 397 t/CO2e. Additional to this a new project has been piloted to save money by reducing the power used by PC and laptops. Software has been installed in all Council PC’s and laptops that will put equipment into a ‘lower power’ state when they are not being used, thus saving power and saving money. Due to the success of the pilot, the project is being rolled out to the whole organisation. The power down project will result in an additional saving of approx 67 t/CO2e.

· Modern Working – savings not yet available

Modern working means using new technologies and design to reduce costs and increase productivity and flexibility through more efficient use of office accommodation. By adopting modern working as the default practice across the office estate the Council can improve the ratio of people per workstation and reduce the space required for the same number of staff by 40%. The capacity of the accommodation is therefore increased and the Council can subsequently benefit corporately from financial savings, a reduction in the backlog maintenance and a reduction in the amount of carbon produced per annum.

· Low Carbon Schools Pilot – savings to follow

Cornwall’s schools produce more than half of the carbon emissions from Council’s buildings. Property Services in partnership with the Carbon Trust established the Low Carbon Schools Pilot Project encouraging schools to implement simple sustainable measures. This pilot project showed the potential carbon and cost savings achievable without any capital investment and focusing only on advice to drive behavioural change.

· Improvements to Council housing stock – savings not yet available

Cornwall Housing Ltd (CHL) has set a new housing quality standard designed to improve the council housing stock across Cornwall. The Cornish Housing Standard has been created jointly by tenants and officers from Cornwall Housing and will be Cornwall Council’s new benchmark for the quality of its houses, raising the bar above the level originally set by the Government’s Decent Homes Standard in 2001. The new standard will apply both to the Council’s existing council housing stock of 10,700 homes, as well as to the new homes Cornwall Housing plans to develop in the coming years. The measures will include:

o Double glazed windows and doors to just over 3000 properties within the next four years that can save between 5%-10% on tenants energy bills.
o 150 PV installations just completed (waiting for software to be installed to show generation in KWh’s and carbon data.
o Three large estates consisting of over 300 Council properties are having night storage heaters removed and ‘A’ rated energy efficient condensing boilers fitted and full Central Heating following significant grant funding received by CHL to extend gas mains in Launceston and Bodmin areas.
o Fuel switching projects will be dependant on what grant funding is secured.
o Selling /demolishing inefficient housing stock to aid funding new energy efficient properties (150-200 to be built in next four years depending on funding).

4.3 Street Lighting
· Technical Highway Infrastructure – 4,316 MWh per year saved -2,353 t/CO2e per year saved

As part of a three year ‘Invest to Save’ programme which began in April 2009, street lights across Cornwall are being replaced and new lamps are being installed. The project was initiated by Cornwall County Council prior to becoming a unitary authority, to cover its stock of 48,000 lighting units. This has now been expanded to include 3,000 additional units previously owned by the District Councils. The project involves the replacement of street lighting lamps throughout the county with a new lamp technology and control system which will enable us to vary the levels of light, switch lights on and off at any desired time and monitor the exact energy consumption of the units. The system also allows Cornwall Council to offer local communities the chance to contribute to the operational lighting service in their area. A ‘Part Night’ switching trial in nine areas where communities have shown an interest in operating reduced levels of street lighting between 3rd September 2012 and 12th of October 2012 involved changes to the lighting operation for a set and agreed six week period.

4.4 Transport
· Fleet Management – 741 MWh energy saved – 187 t/CO2e

Through CORMAC Solutions Ltd the Council operates and maintains one of Cornwall’s largest vehicle fleet and plant maintenance facilities. CORMAC Solutions Ltd operates 80% of the Council fleet. The emissions of the fleet are reduced through constant monitoring and improvement of vehicle fuel consumption through appropriate allocation, speed and rev limiting. A plant transport hub is also being planned to reduce miles travelled.

· Corporate Travel Plan – 162 MWh saved per year -40 t/CO2e / year current and planned savings from pool cars

The Council has over 19,000 employees carrying out a broad range of occupations. Most of these staff will travel as part of their daily routine, and the Council aim to manage the impact of this travel as much as possible. To assist with this, a Corporate Travel Plan has been in operation since 2002. The Council is revising this plan to reflect the rationalisation of its offices and a more flexible ‘working from home’ policy that advancement in technology has made possible. The travel plan will incorporate:

o Video conferencing - Plans are underway to procure a corporate unified communications platform to enable all staff to use audio, visual and web conference from their personal PC. This will support the corporate travel plan, modern working principles and Services requirement to reduce their business miles by 10% from 2011/12 levels.

o Pool cars – In order to be able to deliver its service staff of the Councils Planning and Regeneration Service travel some 5-600,000 business miles per year. This was historically done in officers own vehicles. Last year this changed to a pool car fleet of thirty eight vehicles at neutral cost. The change from an average cross section of vehicle to an efficient diesel and part electric fleet offsetting some 480,000 miles saved in the region of 20 t/CO2e. Plans are now underway to trial a fleet of thirty pool cars available to all Council officers with a view to increase them if it is successful. An additional thirty diesel cars offsetting 360,000 miles will save a further approximate 20 t/CO2e.

4.5 Local Electricity Production
The Council’s Business Plan update 2012/13 explains proposals are being developed to – ‘Have 20 renewable energy facilities – solar, geothermal, wind farms and wave energy – in place by 2015, supplying all of the Council’s electricity needs’

· Council owned renewable energy – 36,625 MWh of renewable energy generated and an estimated saving of 19,969 t/CO2e/ year

The Council is committed to investing in renewable energy and, since 2009, has installed 1.63MW of photovoltaic panels on its own buildings and retrofitted biomass boilers to its principal office buildings such as New County Hall.

Cornwall Council is moving ahead with the construction of Kernow Solar Park, the first council-owned solar farm of its size in the UK. The scheme will see the development of a 5 Megawatt solar park on a site near to Newquay Cornwall airport, producing an initial income of around £700,000 per year and enough power to run 1,000 homes.

The Council commissioned Provelio to carry out a desktop analysis of the hydro-generation opportunities on Council owned land. The scoping exercise produced a report which identified two viable sites in Bude, North Cornwall (20kW) and St Austell, Mid Cornwall (10kW). Commissioning will now begin to find a specialist consultant to further develop these proposed sites.

Of the 2012-18 Council capital budget, £16m has provisionally already been allocated for the development of further renewable energy projects subject to detailed business cases. Future opportunities for other types of energy generation include hydropower, wind turbines and anaerobic digestion plants are all being investigated.

4.6 Public procurement of products and services
· Responsible Procurement Policy – not measurable

Procurement is estimated to be equivalent to 60-80% of Cornwall Council’s total carbon footprint (direct and indirect emissions). An annual responsible procurement prioritisation exercise is carried out using a nationally recognised tool. This allows the corporate procurement team to focus on specific areas of spend and high risk projects. Responsible Procurement considerations are made throughout the procurement process from project initiation to contract award and management. Progress is subject to ongoing monitoring against the UK’s Sustainable Procurement Flexible Framework Assessment Tool.
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4.7 Working with citizens and stakeholders
· Green Reps – not measured

The Green Reps project involves Council staff/representatives volunteering to raise awareness about sustainability amongst their colleagues. Within the Council there are approximately 80 reps based across most of the Council Offices. The role of the Green Reps is to communicate information to staff about a broad range of sustainability issues, e.g. climate change, resource depletion and protection of the natural environment. They learn practical ways that staff can ‘do their bit’ through various topics, i.e. waste reduction and recycling, travel awareness, energy efficiency, water efficiency, procurement, biodiversity. The Green Reps receive initial training from the Sustainability Team and are invited to regular training events run throughout the year.

4.8 Direction towards 2020
Current, ongoing and planned actions are set out above. In order to meet our targets, further actions will be necessary. Some suggestions for future actions were made during workshops with stakeholders, and these were put out for informal consultation. Responses, along with Council comments, can be found in the appendices.

Many ideas are already being progressed, for example, restricting parking, video conferencing and the development of wind turbines on Council land.
Some will be reviewed again in 12 months time but of the suggested actions at this stage the Council aspires to focus on the following.
· Low Carbon Schools – 11,540 MWh of electricity and heat saved - 2,555 t/CO2e per year saved

This project will roll out a low carbon schools service to all of Cornwall’s schools over the next five years (to 2017). The vision is for all schools in Cornwall to include sustainability and carbon reduction as one of its core activities regardless of size, age or location; for all schools to actively measure and manage their carbon footprint, and to significantly reduce their carbon footprints from those recorded in 2009/10 to help meet the Councils wider carbon reduction targets. The projects objectives are:

1. To achieve cost and carbon savings of at least 10% for those schools which participate through a whole school approach;

2. For participating schools to understand their energy consumption trends and potential for improvement;

3. For participating schools to actively manage and measure their carbon footprint;

4. To support schools in identifying further energy efficiency measures and securing funding for them where this is available (e.g. Salix or their own finances), supporting the achievement of greater cost and carbon savings which will be needed to achieve the Council’s overall target of 40%.

· Office Energy Saving campaign / Green rep development - potential 734 t/CO2e per year saved - 1,346 MWh per year saved

It is hoped that a few suggestion can be incorporated into this project.

· The project will roll out activities undertaken during a successful sixteen month pilot at Oceans House, to engage staff and visitors to Council offices in awareness and action in energy savings. This will include installing timers on photocopiers, water boilers and microwaves, and switched power leads on desks, to switch off equipment evenings and weekends. Based on this trial the project could result in a 15% electricity demand reduction from offices.

· Engage more green reps and provide more technical training in the interpretation of energy readings and installation of ‘savings’ equipment, i.e., timers.

· Council staff scheme to encourage colleagues to reduce energy and CO2 (online calculator, league tables, prizes etc)

· Departmental Energy Budgets

The Council is committed to looking at the possibility of giving departments a carbon budget and financial responsibility for energy consumption and ‘Carbon Reduction Commitment’ penalties.

For Cornwall Council carbon targets to be achieved, the whole authority needs to be engaged in the carbon reduction process not just the few. Base lining services (not buildings) eliminates the impact of building quality. A reliable and accurate feedback mechanism will need to be established and is essential for this to be successful.

· Training

The Council is aware of the importance for officers and Council members to be knowledgeable and to receive the required training in areas such as climate change, sustainability, renewable energy and its economic benefits. Carbon management and renewable energy degree level accredited courses are already available to officers.

The Council aspires to identify development options, review if offerings can be made mandatory and the identification of who needs the intervention. Quotes from local colleges have been received and the Council hopes to progress this in 2013.

· Sustainability Appraisal of all budget decisions

The Council aspire to look at:

Budget decisions to be appraised against sustainability objectives as set out in the Sustainable Community Strategy or Sustainability Scoping Report for the Core Strategy. This is to ensure budget priorities are aligned with agreed corporate social, economic and environmental objectives.

5 Green Communities – Domestic Sector

5.1 Overview

The ‘Green Communities’ section is concerned with actions and projects in Cornwall’s communities and targets in the domestic sector. The domestic sector accounts for 32% of Cornwall’s emissions. Transport accounts for 21% of emissions, of which approximately 70% is from the domestic sector (car use, public transport and aviation) .

Cornwall suffers higher than the UK average in terms of fuel poverty, deprivation, unemployment, ‘hard to treat’ homes and fuel bills. Nearly 50% of properties are off gas and a high proportion of properties are hard to treat solid wall construction.

As outlined in section 1.4 above, the Green Cornwall Programme coordinates efforts to reduce the Council’s carbon emissions and strengthen the Council’s wider leadership role within Cornwall. One of the strategic themes from the ‘Green Cornwall Programme’ relates specifically to communities:
· Sustainable communities: Supporting communities to become more resilient, promote demand reduction and increase renewable energy production. Develop community benefit models that tackle fuel poverty and provide local gain through FIT contributions.

A growing trend across Cornwall is the formation of groups of like minded, driven and innovative individuals focussed on leading community action on sustainable energy and climate change issues. Community groups in an attempt to alleviate these difficulties are looking at energy efficiency measures, awareness raising and greater use of renewable energy. They play an important role in engaging more people on the ground and in achieving national targets for energy and carbon reduction.

Cornwall Council can play a role in supporting the domestic sector and community actions and projects as a planner, motivator, in providing advice and support, coordinating actions and allocating funding. Some of the actions are Council owned, such as retrofit projects and sustainable transport infrastructure.
The following sub-sections provide outlines of the activity which will help achieve targets within the domestic sector.
5.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Green Deal and Energy Company Obligation (ECO) –Initial estimates in the region of 100,000 t/CO2e – 230,000 MWh energy saved and 1,850 MWh generated - further details regarding emission and energy savings are expected shortly.

The Green Cornwall team is working on a potential Green Deal and ECO model for Cornwall and also investigating how this might integrate with the ongoing strategic partnership work. This project, potentially worth tens of millions of pounds through the development of a revolving loan fund, has the potential to transform the energy efficiency of a significant proportion of Cornwall’s housing stock, create many hundreds of jobs, and reduce our green house gas emissions significantly. The Green Deal should provide significant emission savings, but due to the scale of the project estimates have yet to be confirmed.

· Fuel Switch – Initial estimates of 75,000 t/CO2e saved per year

The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) requires all domestic energy suppliers with a customer base in excess of 250,000 customers to make savings in the amount of CO2 emitted by householders. The Green Cornwall team has been working to identify a potential private partner able to deliver CERT energy and carbon reductions in order to benefit consumers in Cornwall. 55% of domestic properties in Cornwall are not connected to mains gas and use in the main oil or solid fuels to heat their homes. A cost effective solution to reducing energy bills and emissions is to connect properties to the mains gas supply. Proposals are being discussed to connect 13% of the current stock of the ‘off-gas’ properties in Cornwall resulting in an estimated 75,000 tonnes of CO2e saved per annum.

· Eco Communities– individual projects measured elsewhere

In 2008 the government launched a project with the aim of creating outstanding places to live and work that meet high environmental and social standards. The creation of these environmentally sustainable communities will offer a blueprint for future development and could help meet current and future climate change targets. The “St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town” proposal was given outline government approval in July 2009 and awarded £9.5m. Cornwall Council will lead on the projects for which it has central government funding, but is not responsible for the building of eco-homes or employment space linked with the new Eco-communities - these are responsibilities for the developer. Eco-bos has been set-up as a joint venture company by Imerys and Orascom, a development partner, to prepare Eco-community planning applications for former china clay extraction sites.

· Prince Charles House (savings in comparison to a notional building) – 441 MWh energy saved per year -241 t/CO2e saved per year and 38 MWh of renewable energy generated

This scheme, developed by Ocean Housing Limited, saw the replacement of an existing sheltered housing project close to St Austell town centre. Built in the late 1960’s, Prince Charles House was outdated and in need of significant renovation. The new scheme has seen Ocean redevelop thirty new apartments specifically designed mainly for older people with housing support needs. The scheme was awarded a grant of £3.5 million from Cornwall Council’s Eco-communities Programme of Development fund (established to showcase examples of low carbon living in the area). The grant was used to complete the new apartments to high environmental sustainability standards, demonstrating green technologies that could be used to substantially reduce the carbon emissions for other new housing schemes. The scheme has achieved environmental standards far in excess of those required by normal planning and building regulations. For this type of housing, the project is one of the most sustainable buildings in Cornwall and leads the way for other developments.

· Penwithick Domestic Retrofit Pilot Scheme – 347 MWh energy saved- 54 MWh of renewable energy generated - 150 t/CO2e estimated savings

The Green Cornwall Programme is funding the development of a small-scale domestic retrofit pilot project, with a view to potential future roll-out across Cornwall. The Pilot project will generate information which will inform development of a Green Deal scheme that is specifically tailored and relevant to Cornwall properties and householder profiles.

The seventy-nine properties chosen as part of the Penwithick Retrofit Project (St Austell) will be monitored before and after the interventions by BRE (the Building Research Establishment) to determine the real life energy use. The property types selected reflect the typical Cornish housing mix and include the concrete section “Cornish” units.

· U Choose 2 Retrofit – estimated 76 MWh energy saved - 22 t/CO2e per year saved

This scheme saw the upgrade of three community facilities and spaces within the area of St Austell Clay County, Mid Cornwall, using public funds to bring about emissions reductions and running cost savings for the local community users. The three spaces were Clay TAWC (Clay Area Training and Work Centre), St Dennis, Indian Queens Victory Hall and Roche Victory Hall.

BRE provided independent technical guidance to support Cornwall Council. Each building warranted measures to reduce the running costs for community users and/or make necessary repairs to the buildings in order to become more energy efficient. BRE provided details of a range of potential measures viable, including heating upgrades, improved ventilation, roof, wall and floor insulation, and prioritised the measures that would offer the most immediate benefits to building users.

· Park Home retrofit - estimated 77 MWh of energy saved - 16 t/CO2e per year saved

Cornwall has 3,486 households living in caravans/mobile or temporary structures. Residents of park homes have greater reliance on more expensive fuels such as LPG and solid fuel, and are therefore at greater risk of fuel poverty. Prior to 1996 there was no standard for the construction of park homes, which means that the thermal efficiency of many homes is extremely low. Many residents are retired, making them susceptible to hazards from excess cold, damp and mould. This means their demand for heat is greater.

This project aims to retrofit sixty homes, and is targeted at vulnerable clients on protected sites that would benefit from external wall insulation (EWI), double-glazing, and provision of insulation to floors and roof spaces. The Council will fund 50% of the cost of the work, up to a maximum of £10,000, and offer an interest free loan to cover the remaining costs. The loan monies are to be repaid from savings in fuel costs or in full if the park home is sold. This project is a pilot scheme to explore the viability of running future park homes insulation programmes.

· ENACT energy - estimated 1100 MWh energy saved - 453 t/CO2e per year saved

The Green Cornwall team, working with several community groups, are going to retrofit, at no cost, three hundred properties with super priority group occupants in collaboration with Enact Energy. Estimated savings are extrapolated from the Penwithick Domestic Retrofit pilot project.

· Townscape Heritage Initiative (THI) retrofits – no direct savings

Camborne, Roskear and Tuckingmill Townscape Heritage Initiative (THI) is a grant scheme administered by staff from Cornwall Council’s Historic Environment Service, funding traditional repairs to targeted historic buildings in the Camborne, Roskear and Tuckingmill Conservation Areas. Both the current and new THI have an emphasis on monitored energy saving measures to establish best practice for future retrofit of older local buildings. Many methods of retrofitting older buildings are damaging to the overall character of the building. The THI aims to fund sympathetic ways of upgrading older and historic buildings and provide local reference points for acceptable options. Some of the proposals currently being considered include upgrading traditional single glazed windows through draught proofing, internal secondary glazing, internal timber shutters, slim double glazed units and laser cut acrylic panels. Hemp based plaster and breathable wood fibre insulation are also being considered for increasing thermal performance of solid walls.

The new Camborne, Roskear, Tuckingmill Regeneration, Energy and Skills THI commenced in January 2012 and will run until January 2016. The new scheme has an emphasis on monitored energy saving measures and local traditional skills training.

An energy guide has been produced for owners of buildings looking into THI grants at the time of seeking tenders so that they can think of other energy saving measures at the time of seeking quote.

· Healthy Homes – loans & grants – 24,215 MWh of energy saved per year – 5,977 t/CO2e savings currently per year (from 2009)

‘Healthy Homes’ loans are interest free and available to low-income householders of any age for essential repairs and some energy efficiency improvements. Home Health Energy Efficiency Grants are available to help install loft insulation, cavity wall insulation, and other energy efficiency measures. The scheme is run in partnership with Community Energy Plus. Since 2009 in excess of five thousand nine hundred homes have been insulated. The project ends in line with Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT) funding, at the end of 2012.

· Warmer Wadebridge – 3,550 MWh energy saved – 871 t/CO2e

Wadebridge Renewable Energy Network’s (WREN) objective is to reduce the Wadebridge area’s energy consumption by 5% by 2015 and tackle the area’s high fuel poverty rates. Insulating homes is key to this. In August 2012 WREN launched a town wide insulation program to ensure the Wadebridge area achieves maximum benefit from the remaining funded subsidised insulation offers, and is well positioned to secure future insulation offers under the ECO (Energy Company Obligation) scheme and the Green Deal.

5.3 Transport
· Community Car Clubs
Cornwall Council’s Transportation Service is investigating the viability of supporting car clubs in Cornwall, an initiative identified within the Local Transport Plan. A budget has been identified within the first implementation plan 2011-2015.

Car clubs provide communities with self-service use of a pool of conveniently located cars. They have a number of benefits including helping to provide residents with an alternative to car ownership with the potential to save money and reduce carbon emissions. This can help to reduce the pressure on parking. For employers, car clubs can provide access to a pool of cars for short business trips.

The Council is working with the organisation Carplus to look at how a car club could work in Cornwall and where there is demand for such a service. Three locations have so far been identified that could form the core of the car club network: Truro, Wadebridge and Falmouth. These locations have been selected because they meet some of requirements of car club operations, have secured some local community interest and, in some cases have potential corporate interest in using the car club for business travel by staff of the Council, NHS and higher and further education.

As part of the strategy, Carplus will be working on an implementation plan for car clubs in the county with a view to starting operations from spring 2013.

5.4 Local Electricity Production
· Community Revolving Fund – depending on the exact mix 537-630 MWh generated per year – 293-343 t/CO2e saved per year

The Community Revolving Fund has been established with The Low Carbon Society and will produce measurable benefits once launched later in the year. The Low Carbon Society is a Community Development Finance Institution (IP 031075) that operates a revolving fund to initially finance and support local, independent energy co-ops that have initially de-risked proposed developments. The Society has the ability to offer loan or equity finance with all proposals assessed through a peer review panel. Peers develop skills, experience and knowledge through the support and development of Community Power Cornwall and other community energy co-operatives. Finance secured through the Low Carbon Society will provide communities with the ability and support to leverage mainstream finance. Start-up capital for this CDFI was supplied under the Cornwall Local Area Agreement and The Low Carbon Society has an active loan book, with the first loan of £179,000 made in 2011.

· Energyshare – not measurable

The Green Cornwall team, with support from Cornwall Development Company, is now working in collaboration with Energyshare. This project is aimed at bringing significant inward investment into Green projects in Cornwall. Energyshare brings together individuals and communities, as well as offering expertise in marketing and communications on sustainability related topics, and provides advice and funding for renewable energy projects and carbon saving projects.

· Community Power Cornwall– 289 MWh generated – 157 t/CO2e saved per year

Community Energy Plus in partnership with Kabin and members of Cornwall’s communities created Community Power Cornwall in 2008. It evolved through community led demand for the ownership and integration of renewable energy technologies into everyday lives and settings and provides an economic model through which local people and interested communities can own and benefit from the development of these renewable energy initiatives. Through a public share issue they seek investors who see it as an ethical investment opportunity attracting a blend of environmental, social and financial returns. The first two community owned turbines were erected at Gorran Haven in October 2011. Two Endurance E3120 80KW wind turbines are owned by over one hundred member investors. Finance was raised through Cornwall’s first public share offer, encouraging local ownership of the installations.

A percentage of revenue generated also goes into a local Low Carbon Fund and the community in Gorran are planning their first proposals using the fund, looking to improve the sustainability of the local village hall and further educate local people on the real benefits of locally owned and produced renewable energy.

Community Power Cornwall has another two sites in planning with many more in the pipeline across the County and will be reopening a Share offer at the end of the summer 2012. This scheme offers a real opportunity for communities to own and benefit from the environmental, social and financial benefits of renewable energy developments to support a low carbon future.

· Community Energy Plus – 398 MWh generated – 217 t/CO2e saved per year

Community Energy Plus (CEP) works with communities to help them develop and deliver their own energy efficiency and renewable energy projects, providing the level of support needed to develop and manage all stages of community projects. Recent activity has seen Community Energy Plus providing support on a whole village, parish or town approach, rather than working on low carbon solutions for individual projects.

In Fowey, CEP are helping Fowey Renewable Energy Enterprise (FREE) to develop and deliver a range of renewable energy technologies at ten sites across the town, offering the potential for the group to bring about real practical change in their community. In Ladock, CEP secured £500,000 of government funding and delivered the Low Carbon Community Challenge project to test practical ways to achieve ambitious cuts in carbon emissions at a community level.

Projects are also underway with community groups in Penwith, Illogan, Rame and Polperro and emerging energy Co-Ops in Truro, Falmouth and the surrounding area and St.Genny’s.

· Wadebridge Technology Buying Club – 1,677 MWh generated – 915 t/CO2e per year saved by 2020
The Solar Club provides competitively priced solar panels to local homes and businesses through partnerships with local installers that WREN has selected through a competitive tender process based on track record, quality and appropriateness of the technology, cost and company ethics. WREN raises awareness and local demand for the technology, and endorses the partner installer. In return, WREN receives a contribution for each sale.

Similar technology buying clubs will be set up for solar hot water, biomass heating, and other appropriate technologies.

Solar installed through WREN.

5.5 Land Use Planning
· Neighbourhood Plans
Neighbourhood planning gives local communities the opportunity to produce their own land use plans which then form part of the adopted planning policy for their area. There are three different types of neighbourhood plan which could contribute to carbon reduction in the following ways:

o A Neighbourhood Development Plan could allocate sites for renewable energy or contain design policies that require carbon reduction/ energy efficiency.
o A Neighbourhood Development Order is site specific and could be used to masterplan a renewable energy site and grant permission for it. The development order could also permit certain changes of use that encourage low carbon development, or masterplan a site for housing or employment development, requiring a very energy efficient design specification.
o The third type of plan is the Community Right to Build, a type of neighbourhood development order where the community group also owns and builds the development

If a community chooses to deliver renewable energy sites using the neighbourhood planning process, the plan will be subject to independent examination and a local referendum and will need to conform to the neighbourhood planning regulations – please see Cornwall Council’s website for more information:
http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=31540

5.6 Working with Citizens and Stakeholders

· Community energy group case studies

As participants in an ‘Intelligent Energy Europe’ funded project, ‘Leadership for Energy Action and Planning’, funding will allow the Council to work with communities in Cornwall to assist them in evaluating their current energy consumption, reducing consumption and evaluating renewable energy resource (hydro, wind etc). This will enable potential development of schemes specific to their particular communities and bringing these proposals forward to implementation.

· Community Energy Plus – not measurable – individual projects measured elsewhere

Community Energy Plus is an award-winning social enterprise that provides complete energy answers to help householders and communities reduce their energy use and create a more sustainable future for all in Cornwall. To date, they have helped over twenty-five thousand households in Cornwall save £2.5 million a year on their energy bills through loft and cavity wall insulation, and have been involved in projects to install over 1MW of renewable energy capacity in community buildings and projects across Cornwall. Services provided include: Grants for insulation and heating; Stay warm and save energy and money through energy efficiency; Understand energy bills and tariffs; Combat damp and mould; Understand renewable energy technologies, funding options and financial returns; Planning applications; Managing contractors and advice on using renewable energy systems.

· Cornwall Community Energy Forum

The Community Forum, organised and hosted by the Green Cornwall programme, is a group that will meet quarterly to share best practice, disseminate information pertaining to funding and available support. It will be a useful test bed for issues such as the SEAP and the evolving community renewable energy planning guidance that the Council is developing. It is designed to enable community based groups access information and support from a variety of sources, and highlight the key challenges that they are facing. It is also important to ensure that we are all on a similar direction of travel under the auspices of the Green Communities strand of the Green Cornwall programme.

5.7 Direction towards 2020
Current, ongoing and planned actions are set out above. In order to meet our targets, further actions will be necessary. Some suggestions for future actions were made during workshops with stakeholders, and these were put out for informal consultation. Responses, along with Council comments, can be found in the appendices.

Some suggestions are already underway or planned, such as the Community Energy group forum, car clubs and community revolving fund. Some have been trialled and some are currently not deliverable. Some will be looked at again as part of the SEAP review and monitoring process. Others require more background research before a decision is taken on them.

Of the future actions suggested under the Green Community section, the Council at this stage is aspiring to deliver the following.
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· Community Sustainable Energy Plan

Cornwall Council recognises that communities have a key role to play in delivering renewable energy and that, in addition to owning their own clean energy supply and reducing their emissions, those communities that embrace the opportunities stand to benefit from significant and secure long term revenue sources that can be used to maintain services and increase the sustainability of the community.

The Council’s Planning and Regeneration Service has the necessary expertise, and is keen to work with interested communities to help them realise these opportunities. To that end, a bespoke service is being developed to help communities understand their renewable energy opportunities and to help them identify and deliver projects that will result in community-owned renewable energy generation. Specifically the Planning Team will assist communities by:

1. Working with landowners to identify potential sites that could be developed;

2. Undertaking an assessment of the renewable energy resource opportunities;

3. Working with installers to identify the appropriate technology options;

4. Engaging residents and stakeholders in the project;

5. Assisting with the preparation of a planning application;

6. Securing funding;

7. Working with the community to ensure that devices are successfully installed.

· An Allowable Solutions Fund

Building Regulations Part L is projected to introduce mandatory zero carbon energy performance standards from 2016 (domestic buildings) and 2019 (non-domestic buildings). This includes scope for a carbon offset payment (part of the allowable solutions). The Council should collect these payments and use them to support community scale low carbon energy infrastructure where the benefits will have the widest benefits.

6 Green Economy – Commercial and Services Sectors

6.1 Overview

The ‘Green Economy’ section is concerned with actions and projects targeted at the commercial and services sectors. Two of the Green Cornwall Programmes strategic themes, relate specifically to the commercial sector emissions.

· Leadership: The Council leading by example, providing leadership in reaching Cornwall wide targets and the transformation to a low carbon economy
· Low carbon economy: Providing the infrastructure, investment, and requisite skills to create the conditions for a measurable transformation towards a low carbon economy.
In section 3 Green Cornwall of the SEAP there are many actions such as investment into geothermal, marine and smart grids that are considered cross cutting, but are integral to the ‘Green Economy’.
The SEAP ‘Green Economy’ objectives align with the ‘Economic Ambition – Cornwall Councils White Paper’ as detailed in section 1.5 and the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Local Enterprise Partnerships Economic Growth Strategy as detailed in section 1.6.
Cornwall Council can play a role in supporting business/organisation’s actions and projects as planner, motivator, providing advice and support, sharing knowledge and allocating funding. Some of the actions are Council owned, such as the Low Carbon Grant Fund.
The following sub-sections provide outlines of the activity which will help achieve targets within the domestic sector.
6.2 Buildings and equipment/facilities
· Low Carbon Grant Fund – savings not yet available

The Low Carbon Grant Fund is a European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) Convergence programme, designed to support businesses in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly to improve their energy/resource efficiency and/or enable the generation of low carbon energy and/or deliver greenhouse gas reduction via other innovative means. The Fund was launched in April 2011 with a two stage commissioning process administered by Cornwall Council on behalf of the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG). The fund is now closed and there will not be any more calls in this current Convergence programme period.

6.3 Working with Citizens and Stakeholders
· Cornwall Sustainability Awards – not measurable

Cornwall Council set up the Cornwall Sustainability Awards in 2002, in conjunction with district councils, the Environment Agency, Cornwall Business School, and Groundwork. The awards are designed to encourage businesses of every size and description to adopt more sustainable practices. Many winners and entrants have gone on to win national and international awards, and have become excellent ambassadors for sustainable development, speaking at national conferences, developing training packages and generally inspiring others to follow their example.

· Clear about Carbon
Financed by the European Social Fund (ESF) Convergence Programme for delivery in Cornwall, ‘Clear About Carbon’ was a three year project that finished in March 2012, and aimed to find new ways to increase carbon literacy within businesses and the public sector. ‘Clear About Carbon’ worked closely with a number of Cornish SMEs and organisations to determine what does and does not work when it comes to communicating with staff about climate change and the business opportunities that a low-carbon economy could offer. By delivering outreach and training programmes to staff within the county, from Cornwall Council to Trewithen Dairy, the team drew valuable conclusions from its work with practitioners and it continues to offer training in sustainable procurement.

· RESGen- RES Generation - From Research Infrastructure to Sustainable Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions – not measured

The RESGen Project aims to create realistic grounds and practical tools for developing regional energy self sufficiency, and potential innovative regional research-driven clusters across the EU. The RESGen workplan consisting of six work packages, associates topics such as Road Maps and Visions 2010-2020 for the regions involved in the project. Also, the creation of a ‘Joint Action Plan’ and mentoring with partners has a high degree of importance, as well as communication and dissemination throughout the entire project lifetime. You will find additional information about the work plan from the ‘Content’ segment of the website. The partnership of RESGen consists from nine partners representing four different countries that are: Finland, Hungary, Spain and United Kingdom. The partners and regions are presented in detail in the ‘Regions’ segment of the website. The project outputs included, but are not limited to, the following:

o Cornwall Carbon Navigator which gives an overview of low carbon projects and programmes currently taking place in Cornwall. This platform was developed to help support a more coordinated approach to the low carbon agenda in the region.

o Low Carbon Economic Delivery Plan which was developed to act as an interim delivery plan for low carbon economic development in Cornwall. The development of this document involved a large element of stakeholder engagement, including successful engagement with the private sector. This plan informed Cornwall Council’s Economic Development Service prioritisation and will hopefully be used to support both the SEAP and future prioritisation for the next round of European funding.

o Sustainable Energy Joint Action Plan detailing collaborative opportunities between the RESGen partner regions across seven priority themes: smart grids; wind energy; marine energy; green public procurement; regional sustainable energy management; energy technology cluster cooperation; and energy efficiency.
· Carbon Calculator for Businesses
Superfast Cornwall (in conjunction with Visit Cornwall, CoaST and Clear about Carbon) has developed an online carbon calculator which will enable people to baseline their carbon footprint and see how it changes over time.

A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, and in particular climate change. Understanding your carbon footprint is the first step towards reducing it and saving money, which is why a carbon calculator tool has been developed to help measure, manage and minimise the carbon footprint of homes or businesses. The tool measures the carbon impacts associated with electricity, heating, travel (cars, flights, etc) and waste, and there are separate carbon calculators for businesses and households.

· CoaST project - tourism industry support

CoaST is a social enterprise, a not for private profit business, trading for ‘people and planet’ to bring benefit to the communities and environment in which we work. It provides a virtual network to over two thousand members, and encourages and enables them to trade in a more sustainable way that is better for Cornwall and beyond.

6.4 Direction towards 2020
Current, ongoing and planned actions are set out above. In order to meet our targets, further actions will be necessary. Some suggestions for future actions were made during workshops with stakeholders, and these were put out for informal consultation. Responses, along with Council comments, can be found in the appendices.

Many ideas are already being progressed, for example, facilitating collaboration between the Universities and the Council, travel plans, and encouraging the sharing of experiences, peer support, and best practice by businesses, e.g., the Sustainability Awards. Some will be reviewed again in twelve months time, but of the suggested ideas, at this stage the Council is aspiring to deliver:
· Cornwall’s Green 100
Recognising that many businesses do not value the need to engage with carbon reduction, as they either lack knowledge, skill and/or capacity, ‘Green 100’ sets out to provide an innovative approach in the engagement of Cornish businesses to help them become more carbon/energy/resource efficient. The focus of the project will engage a minimum of one hundred Cornish businesses, and encourage them to commit to a voluntary Green Cornwall Declaration (i.e. sign-up to “measure, manage, minimise”).

Through the provision of information, diagnosis and brokerage, Green 100 will promote Cornwall’s transition to a carbon and resource efficient economy. Activities would include the development of One-to-One and One-to-Many support activities including, but not necessarily restricted to, provision of web based resources, advice and support with respect to the collection and compilation of carbon data and the preparation of basic carbon accounts, participant seminars/master-classes for SMEs and carbon literacy/management/ accounting, as well as access to comparative ‘Carbon Benchmarking’ network.

This would help businesses to ‘Measure, Manage, & Minimise’ their carbon impact, and would help define baseline data for future carbon reduction interventions. Such an approach will provide a vital value added approach to the programme, i.e., completing and expanding on Superfast Cornwall’s environmental monitoring activities, the IYRE project, and linking to the proposed LCGF ‘Carbon Ambassadors’. It will also provide a means by which to accurately define the level of tCo2e emissions under management through the programme’s interventions, and help to evidence progression (in tCo2e emissions) over the lifetime of the Green 100 project and wider programme.
· Signpost Services
It has been noted that many of the suggestions made through the stakeholder workshops, and the informal consultation process, are already being delivered in the private sector.

The Council will aspire to provide a signposting service to businesses offering information about all the potential funding opportunities and services available to support them in reducing their energy usage and grow in a sustainable and resource efficient way.
· Get Set for Green Deal
In 2013 the government will introduce the Green Deal scheme to make homes and businesses more energy efficient. Consumers will be able to pay for the energy efficiency measures through their bill savings rather than pay for them up front.

Through the Green Deal and ECO (Energy Company Obligation) the Department of Energy and Climate Change predict ‘that the supply chain could support 100,000 jobs within five years, spread across the United Kingdom.’ These jobs will include registered advisors and installers amongst others. For Cornwall to benefit from these jobs we need to be ahead of the game.

The Council aspires to raise awareness of the Green Deal and provide the support and information needed for businesses to be ready to participate in the scheme.

7 Conclusion

Category Baseline (tonnes of CO2e) CO2eRequired saving Target reduction Current and planned actions total t/ CO2e Current and planned %
Council buildings and facilities 42,909 17,163 40% 379,128(including savings from electricity production) 20.42
Commercial buildings 429,695 146,096 34%
Residential buildings 1,330,287 452,297 34%
Street lighting 11,199 4,479 40%
Municipal fleet 12,002 4,801 40% 2,427 0.003
Public transport 67,044 22,795 34%
Private and commercial transport 886,622 301,451 34%
Waste management 294,228 1,000,038 34% 00 0
Water management 45 16 34% 00 0
Total 3,074,030 1,049,137 381,555 12.4
This SEAP is a living document that will be updated at regular intervals. It will provide the Council and the Green Cornwall Programme with a tool for assessing the progress being made in achieving the SEAP targets. Some seventy SEAP actions have been identified (listed in section3-6 of the SEAP and in tabular format in the appendices) together with expected or achieved savings.

Additional actions will be required to meet the ambitious targets set in the SEAP. These will be informed by ongoing monitoring and stakeholder engagement which will help identify the areas needing focus and what the actions will be.

Of the seventy plus sustainable actions identified in the SEAP, only one third have been measured. The unmeasured actions include pilot projects, awareness raising, supporting measures and land use planning actions. All of the unmeasured actions should provide the basis and ongoing requirements for continued momentum and progress.

· Emissions Reduction
The total t/CO2e savings per year required by 2020 is 1,049,137 tonnes of CO2e. Of the current and planned actions that are measurable the savings currently totals 481,853.

The table below outlines the emission savings that will be achieved by the SEAP actions across all sectors. Categories have been combined to include the cross cutting actions.

It is evident from this table that further actions are required across all sectors.

· Demand Reduction / Efficiency Savings
The total energy savings per year required by 2020 is 2,862,586 MWh. Of the current and planned actions that are measurable the savings currently totals 391,138 MWh.

The table below outlines the energy savings that will be achieved by the SEAP actions across all sectors. Categories have been combined to include the cross cutting actions.

Category Baseline (MWh) Target demand reduction Target savings MWh Current and planned actions total MWh Current and planned %
Council buildings and facilities 122,574 30% 36,772 376,986 6.69
Commercial buildings 1,363,415 30% 409,025
Residential buildings 4,141,793 30% 1,242,583
Street lighting 20,540 30% 6,162 4,316 21.01
Municipal fleet 47,991 30% 14,397 9,836 0.25
Public transport 264,985 30% 79,496
Private and commercial transport 3,580,655 30% 1,074,197
Total 9,541,953 30% 2,862,586 391,138 4.1

It is evident from the table that actions resulting in demand reduction are very much needed if a 30% target is to be met by 2020.

· Renewable Energy Production
In 2009, renewable electricity generation equated to 187,199 MWh. The total electricity consumption from the SEAP sectors in 2009 was 1,819,525 MWh. In 2020 demand should have been reduced to 1,273,667 MWh. The target of 30% renewable generation will then equate to 382,100 MWh.

The table below outlines what the renewable electricity production actions will achieve.

Electricity demandMWh Target 30% of electricity 2009 Baseline Current and planned actions MWh Total renewable electricity generated MWh Current and planned %
Demand reduction met 1,273,667 382,100 187,199 329,043 517,242 40.61

It is evident that if all planned actions are delivered by 2020 the target to provide 30% of electricity demand from the SEAP sectors will be met.

· SEAP Benefits
It is important to remember the benefits of a SEAP. Through the Covenant of Mayors, a SEAP is a well recognised tool used by many local and regional authorities, voluntarily committing to increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. As a signatory the Council can benefit from encouragement and expertise from other signatories as well as EU endorsement and support. A SEAP will also place the Council and communities within Cornwall in a better position to access future European funding designed to implement sustainable energy actions.

The impacts of meeting the SEAP targets should all be positives. The economy will benefit from keeping a proportion of fuel bills in the County, revenue generation from the sale of energy and an increase in ‘green’ jobs. A greater proportion of decentralised renewable energy generation should also aid in increasing energy security in Cornwall. In 2002, 55% of homes in Cornwall were not connected to the mains gas supply and many homes are hard to treat homes. In addition there are a high proportion of residents who are fuel poor. Reducing demand through retrofit programmes and empowering communities to invest in renewable energy should help to reduce the affect of increasing fuel prices and reduce the number suffering fuel poverty.

Between now and 2020 the Cornwall Council and its ‘Green Cornwall’ Programme needs to deliver the objectives set out in Future Cornwall, specifically concerning: developing a low carbon economy; improving resilience and self-sufficiency of communities; and increasing local generation of sustainable and affordable energy and reducing consumption.

Through stakeholder engagement and communication of the SEAP it is hoped that further sustainable energy actions can be identified and delivered, leading to a low carbon energy future, an elimination of fuel poverty and a thriving green economy for Cornwall.

Prepared by:
Planning Delivery Team
Planning and Regeneration
Cornwall Council
29 January 2013

If you would like this information
in another format please contact:
Cornwall Council
County Hall
Treyew Road
Truro TR1 3AY
Telephone: 0300 1234 100
Email: enquiries@cornwall.gov.uk
www.cornwall.gov.uk